r2181 - / trunk/BOOK trunk/BOOK/boot/x86 trunk/BOOK/boot/x86_64-64 trunk/BOOK/bootscripts/common trunk/BOOK/cross-tools/x86 trunk/BOOK/final-system/64 trunk/BOOK/final-system/common

jim at linuxfromscratch.org jim at linuxfromscratch.org
Mon Aug 7 08:46:51 PDT 2006


Author: jim
Date: 2006-08-07 09:46:49 -0600 (Mon, 07 Aug 2006)
New Revision: 2181

Modified:
   /
   trunk/BOOK/boot/x86/kernel.xml
   trunk/BOOK/boot/x86_64-64/flags.xml
   trunk/BOOK/bootscripts/common/udev.xml
   trunk/BOOK/cross-tools/x86/gcc-static.xml
   trunk/BOOK/final-system/64/gcc.xml
   trunk/BOOK/final-system/common/glibc.xml
   trunk/BOOK/general.ent
Log:
 r5008 at server (orig r2306):  chris at beaker67.com | 2006-08-07 07:40:23 -0700
 Updated date



Property changes on: 
___________________________________________________________________
Name: svk:merge
   - b6734a72-470d-0410-b049-f317dca95413:/:2305
   + b6734a72-470d-0410-b049-f317dca95413:/:2306

Modified: trunk/BOOK/boot/x86/kernel.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/boot/x86/kernel.xml	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/boot/x86/kernel.xml	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -57,9 +57,8 @@
 <screen os="f"><userinput>loadkeys -m <replaceable>[path to  keymap]</replaceable> > \
     drivers/char/defkeymap.c</userinput></screen>
 
-    <xi:include xmlns:xi="http://www.w3.org/2003/XInclude"
-    href="../../bootable/x86/kernel.xml"
-    xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='g'])"/>
+    <para os="g">For example, if using a Dutch keyboard, use
+    <filename>/usr/share/kbd/keymaps/i386/qwerty/nl.map.gz</filename>.</para>
 
     <para os="ae">Configure the kernel via a menu-driven interface:</para>
 

Modified: trunk/BOOK/boot/x86_64-64/flags.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/boot/x86_64-64/flags.xml	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/boot/x86_64-64/flags.xml	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -10,8 +10,8 @@
 
   <title>Build Flags</title>
 
-  <para>We will need to copy our BUILD Variables into our new system. So when
-  we boot-up they will be there:</para>
+  <para>We will need to copy our build variables into our new system so that
+  when we boot-up they will be there:</para>
 
 <screen><userinput>echo export BUILD64=\""${BUILD64}\"" >> ${CLFS}/root/.bash_profile</userinput></screen>
 

Modified: trunk/BOOK/bootscripts/common/udev.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/bootscripts/common/udev.xml	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/bootscripts/common/udev.xml	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -1,209 +1,325 @@
 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>
 <!DOCTYPE sect1 PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.4//EN"
   "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.4/docbookx.dtd" [
-  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../../general.ent">
+  <!ENTITY % general-entities SYSTEM "../general.ent">
   %general-entities;
 ]>
 
 <sect1 id="ch-scripts-udev">
   <?dbhtml filename="udev.html"?>
 
-  <title>Device and Module Handling on a CLFS System</title>
+  <title>Device and Module Handling on an LFS System</title>
 
   <indexterm zone="ch-scripts-udev">
     <primary sortas="a-Udev">Udev</primary>
-  <secondary>usage</secondary></indexterm>
+    <secondary>usage</secondary>
+  </indexterm>
 
   <para>In <xref linkend="chapter-building-system"/>, we installed the Udev
-  package. Before we go into the details regarding how this works, a brief
-  history of previous methods of handling devices is in order.</para>
+  package. Before we go into the details regarding how this works,
+  a brief history of previous methods of handling devices is in
+  order.</para>
 
   <para>Linux systems in general traditionally use a static device creation
   method, whereby a great many device nodes are created under <filename
   class="directory">/dev</filename> (sometimes literally thousands of nodes),
-  regardless of whether the corresponding hardware devices actually exist.
-  This is typically done via a <command>MAKEDEV</command> script, which
-  contains a number of calls to the <command>mknod</command> program with
-  the relevant major and minor device numbers for every possible device that
-  might exist in the world. Using the Udev method, only those devices which
-  are detected by the kernel get device nodes created for them. Because
-  these device nodes will be created each time the system boots, they will
-  be stored on a <systemitem class="filesystem">tmpfs</systemitem> (a virtual
-  file system that resides entirely in system memory). Device nodes do not
-  require much space, so the memory that is used is negligible.</para>
+  regardless of whether the corresponding hardware devices actually exist. This
+  is typically done via a <command>MAKEDEV</command> script, which contains a
+  number of calls to the <command>mknod</command> program with the relevant
+  major and minor device numbers for every possible device that might exist in
+  the world.</para>
 
+  <para>Using the Udev method, only those devices which are detected by the
+  kernel get device nodes created for them. Because these device nodes will be
+  created each time the system boots, they will be stored on a <systemitem
+  class="filesystem">tmpfs</systemitem> file system (a virtual file system that
+  resides entirely in system memory). Device nodes do not require much space, so
+  the memory that is used is negligible.</para>
+
   <sect2>
     <title>History</title>
 
     <para>In February 2000, a new filesystem called <systemitem
     class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> was merged into the 2.3.46 kernel
     and was made available during the 2.4 series of stable kernels. Although
-    it was present in the kernel source itself, this method of creating
-    devices dynamically never received overwhelming support from the core
-    kernel developers.</para>
+    it was present in the kernel source itself, this method of creating devices
+    dynamically never received overwhelming support from the core kernel
+    developers.</para>
 
     <para>The main problem with the approach adopted by <systemitem
-    class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> was the way it handled
-    device detection, creation, and naming. The latter issue, that of
-    device node naming, was perhaps the most critical. It is generally
-    accepted that if device names are allowed to be configurable, then
-    the device naming policy should be up to a system administrator, not
-    imposed on them by any particular developer(s). The <systemitem
+    class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> was the way it handled device
+    detection, creation, and naming. The latter issue, that of device node
+    naming, was perhaps the most critical. It is generally accepted that if
+    device names are allowed to be configurable, then the device naming policy
+    should be up to a system administrator, not imposed on them by any
+    particular developer(s). The <systemitem
     class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> file system also suffers from race
-    conditions that are inherent in its design and cannot be fixed
-    without a substantial revision to the kernel. It has also been marked
-    as deprecated due to a lack of recent maintenance.</para>
+    conditions that are inherent in its design and cannot be fixed without a
+    substantial revision to the kernel. It has also been marked as deprecated
+    due to a lack of recent maintenance.</para>
 
-    <para>With the development of the unstable 2.5 kernel tree, later
-    released as the 2.6 series of stable kernels, a new virtual filesystem
-    called <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> came to be. The
-    job of <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> is to export a
-    view of the system's hardware configuration to userspace processes. With
-    this userspace-visible representation, the possibility of seeing a
-    userspace replacement for <systemitem class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem>
-    became much more realistic.</para>
+    <para>With the development of the unstable 2.5 kernel tree, later released
+    as the 2.6 series of stable kernels, a new virtual filesystem called
+    <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> came to be. The job of
+    <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> is to export a view of
+    the system's hardware configuration to userspace processes. With this
+    userspace-visible representation, the possibility of seeing a userspace
+    replacement for <systemitem class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> became
+    much more realistic.</para>
 
   </sect2>
 
   <sect2>
     <title>Udev Implementation</title>
 
-    <para>The <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> filesystem
-    was mentioned briefly above. One may wonder how <systemitem
-    class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> knows about the devices present
-    on a system and what device numbers should be used for them. Drivers
-    that have been compiled into the kernel directly register their objects
-    with <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> as they are
-    detected by the kernel. For drivers compiled as modules, this
-    registration will happen when the module is loaded. Once the
-    <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> filesystem is mounted
-    (on <filename class="directory">/sys</filename>), data which the built-in
-    drivers registered with <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>
-    are available to userspace processes and to <command>udev</command> for
-    device node creation.</para>
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Sysfs</title>
 
-    <para>The <command>S10udev</command> initscript takes care of creating
-    these device nodes when Linux is booted. This script starts by registering
-    <command>/sbin/udevsend</command> as a hotplug event handler. Hotplug
-    events (discussed below) are not usually generated during this stage,
-    but <command>udev</command> is registered just in case they do occur.
-    The <command>udevstart</command> program then walks through the
-    <systemitem class="filesystem">/sys</systemitem> filesystem and creates
-    devices under <filename class="directory">/dev</filename> that match the
-    descriptions. For example, <filename>/sys/class/tty/vcs/dev</filename>
-    contains the string <quote>7:0</quote> This string is used by
-    <command>udevstart</command> to create <filename>/dev/vcs</filename>
-    with major number <emphasis>7</emphasis> and minor <emphasis>0</emphasis>.
-    The names and permissions of the nodes created under the <filename
-    class="directory">/dev</filename> directory are configured according to
-    the rules specified in the files within the <filename
-    class="directory">/etc/udev/rules.d/</filename> directory. These are
-    numbered in a similar fashion to the CLFS-Bootscripts package. If
-    <command>udev</command> can't find a rule for the device it is creating,
-    it will default permissions to <emphasis>660</emphasis> and ownership to
-    <emphasis>root:root</emphasis>.</para>
+      <para>The <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> filesystem was
+      mentioned briefly above. One may wonder how <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> knows about the devices present on
+      a system and what device numbers should be used for them. Drivers that
+      have been compiled into the kernel directly register their objects with
+      <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> as they are detected by
+      the kernel. For drivers compiled as modules, this registration will happen
+      when the module is loaded. Once the <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> filesystem is mounted (on <filename
+      class="directory">/sys</filename>), data which the built-in drivers
+      registered with <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> are
+      available to userspace processes and to <command>udevd</command> for device
+      node creation.</para>
 
-    <para>Once the above stage is complete, all devices that were already
-    present and have compiled-in drivers will be available for use. This
-    leads us to the devices that have modular drivers.</para>
+    </sect3>
 
-    <para>Earlier, we mentioned the concept of a <quote>hotplug event
-    handler.</quote> When a new device connection is detected by the kernel,
-    the kernel will generate a hotplug event and look at the file
-    <filename>/proc/sys/kernel/hotplug</filename> to determine the userspace
-    program that handles the device's connection. The <command>udev</command>
-    bootscript registered <command>udevsend</command> as this handler. When
-    these hotplug events are generated, the kernel will tell
-    <command>udev</command> to check the <filename
-    class="directory">/sys</filename> filesystem for the information
-    pertaining to this new device and create the <filename
-    class="directory">/dev</filename> entry for it.</para>
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Udev Bootscript</title>
 
-    <para>This brings us to one problem that exists with
-    <command>udev</command>, and likewise with <systemitem
-    class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem> before it. It is commonly
-    referred to as the <quote>chicken and egg</quote> problem. Most
-    Linux distributions handle loading modules via entries in
-    <filename>/etc/modules.conf</filename>. Access to a device node causes
-    the appropriate kernel module to load. With <command>udev</command>,
-    this method will not work because the device node does not exist until
-    the module is loaded. To solve this, the <command>S05modules</command>
-    bootscript was added to the CLFS-Bootscripts package, along with the
-    <filename>/etc/sysconfig/modules</filename> file. By adding module
-    names to the <filename>modules</filename> file, these modules will be
-    loaded when the computer starts up. This allows <command>udev</command>
-    to detect the devices and create the appropriate device nodes.</para>
+      <para>The <command>S10udev</command> initscript takes care of creating
+      device nodes when Linux is booted. The script unsets the uevent handler
+      from the default of <command>/sbin/hotplug</command>.  This is done
+      because the kernel no longer needs to call out to an external binary.
+      Instead <command>udevd</command> will listen on a netlink socket for
+      uevents that the kernel raises. Next, the bootscript copies any static
+      device nodes that exist in <filename
+      class="directory">/lib/udev/devices</filename> to <filename
+      class="directory">/dev</filename>. This is necessary because some devices,
+      directories, and symlinks are needed before the dynamic device handling
+      processes are available during the early stages of booting a system.
+      Creating static device nodes in <filename
+      class="directory">/lib/udev/devices</filename> also provides an easy
+      workaround for devices that are not supported by the dynamic device
+      handling infrastructure. The bootscript then starts the Udev daemon,
+      <command>udevd</command>, which will act on any uevents it receives.
+      Finally, the bootscript forces the kernel to replay uevents for any
+      devices that have already been registered and then waits for
+      <command>udevd</command> to handle them.</para>
 
-    <para>Note that on slower machines or for drivers that create a lot
-    of device nodes, the process of creating devices may take a few
-    seconds to complete. This means that some device nodes may not be
-    immediately accessible.</para>
+    </sect3>
 
-  </sect2>
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Device Node Creation</title>
 
-  <sect2>
-    <title>Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices</title>
+      <para>To obtain the right major and minor number for a device, Udev relies
+      on the information provided by <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> in <filename
+      class="directory">/sys</filename>.  For example,
+      <filename>/sys/class/tty/vcs/dev</filename> contains the string
+      <quote>7:0</quote>. This string is used by <command>udevd</command>
+      to create a device node with major number <emphasis>7</emphasis> and minor
+      <emphasis>0</emphasis>. The names and permissions of the nodes created
+      under the <filename class="directory">/dev</filename> directory are
+      determined by rules specified in the files within the <filename
+      class="directory">/etc/udev/rules.d/</filename> directory. These are
+      numbered in a similar fashion to the LFS-Bootscripts package. If
+      <command>udevd</command> can't find a rule for the device it is creating,
+      it will default permissions to <emphasis>660</emphasis> and ownership to
+      <emphasis>root:root</emphasis>. Documentation on the syntax of the Udev
+      rules configuration files are available in
+      <filename>/usr/share/doc/udev-&udev-version;/index.html</filename></para>
 
-    <para>When you plug in a device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB)
-    MP3 player, the kernel recognizes that the device is now connected and
-    generates a hotplug event. If the driver is already loaded (either
-    because it was compiled into the kernel or because it was loaded via
-    the <command>S05modules</command> bootscript), <command>udev</command>
-    will be called upon to create the relevant device node(s) according to
-    the <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> data available in
-    <filename class="directory">/sys</filename>.</para>
+    </sect3>
 
-    <para>If the driver for the just plugged in device is available as a
-    module but currently unloaded, the Hotplug package will load the
-    appropriate module and make this device available by creating the
-    device node(s) for it.</para>
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Module Loading</title>
 
+      <para>Device drivers compiled as modules may have aliases built into them.
+      Aliases are visible in the output of the <command>modinfo</command>
+      program and are usually related to the bus-specific identifiers of devices
+      supported by a module. For example, the <emphasis>snd-fm801</emphasis>
+      driver supports PCI devices with vendor ID 0x1319 and device ID 0x0801,
+      and has an alias of <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv*sd*bc04sc01i*</quote>.
+      For most devices, the bus driver exports the alias of the driver that
+      would handle the device via <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>. E.g., the
+      <filename>/sys/bus/pci/devices/0000:00:0d.0/modalias</filename> file
+      might contain the string
+      <quote>pci:v00001319d00000801sv00001319sd00001319bc04sc01i00</quote>.
+      The rules that LFS installs will cause <command>udevd</command> to call
+      out to <command>/sbin/modprobe</command> with the contents of the
+      <envar>MODALIAS</envar> uevent environment variable (that should be the
+      same as the contents of the <filename>modalias</filename> file in sysfs),
+      thus loading all modules whose aliases match this string after wildcard
+      expansion.</para>
+
+      <para>In this example, this means that, in addition to
+      <emphasis>snd-fm801</emphasis>, the obsolete (and unwanted)
+      <emphasis>forte</emphasis> driver will be loaded if it is
+      available. See below for ways in which the loading of unwanted drivers can
+      be prevented.</para>
+
+      <para>The kernel itself is also able to load modules for network
+      protocols, filesystems and NLS support on demand.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Handling Hotpluggable/Dynamic Devices</title>
+
+      <para>When you plug in a device, such as a Universal Serial Bus (USB) MP3
+      player, the kernel recognizes that the device is now connected and
+      generates a uevent. This uevent is then handled by
+      <command>udevd</command> as described above.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
   </sect2>
 
   <sect2>
-    <title>Problems with Creating Devices</title>
+    <title>Problems with Loading Modules and Creating Devices</title>
 
-    <para>There are a few known problems when it comes to automatically
-    creating device nodes:</para>
+    <para>There are a few possible problems when it comes to automatically
+    creating device nodes.</para>
 
-    <para>1) A kernel driver may not export its data to <systemitem
-    class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>.</para>
+    <sect3>
+      <title>A kernel module is not loaded automatically</title>
 
-    <para>This is most common with third party drivers from outside the
-    kernel tree. Udev will be unable to automatically create device nodes
-    for such drivers. Use the <filename>/etc/sysconfig/createfiles</filename>
-    configuration file to manually create the devices. Consult the
-    <filename>devices.txt</filename> file inside the kernel documentation
-    or the documentation for that driver to find the proper major/minor
-    numbers.</para>
+      <para>Udev will only load a module if it has a bus-specific alias and the
+      bus driver properly exports the necessary aliases to <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>. In other cases, one should
+      arrange module loading by other means. With Linux-&linux-version;, Udev is
+      known to load properly-written drivers for INPUT, IDE, PCI, USB, SCSI,
+      SERIO and FireWire devices.</para>
 
-    <para>2) A non-hardware device is required. This is most common with
-    the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) project's Open Sound
-    System (OSS) compatibility module. These types of devices can be
-    handled in one of two ways:</para>
+      <para>To determine if the device driver you require has the necessary
+      support for Udev, run <command>modinfo</command> with the module name as
+      the argument.  Now try locating the device directory under
+      <filename class="directory">/sys/bus</filename> and check whether there is
+      a <filename>modalias</filename> file there.</para>
 
-    <itemizedlist>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Adding the module names to
-        <filename>/etc/sysconfig/modules</filename></para>
-      </listitem>
-      <listitem>
-        <para>Using an <quote>install</quote> line in
-        <filename>/etc/modprobe.conf</filename>. This tells the
-        <command>modprobe</command> command <quote>when loading this
-        module, also load this other module, at the same time.</quote>
-        For example:</para>
+      <para>If the <filename>modalias</filename> file exists in <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>, the driver supports the device and
+      can talk to it directly, but doesn't have the alias, it is a bug in the
+      driver. Load the driver without the help from Udev and expect the issue
+      to be fixed later.</para>
 
-<screen><userinput>install snd-pcm modprobe -i snd-pcm ; modprobe \
-    snd-pcm-oss ; true</userinput></screen>
+      <para>If there is no <filename>modalias</filename> file in the relevant
+      directory under <filename class="directory">/sys/bus</filename>, this
+      means that the kernel developers have not yet added modalias support to
+      this bus type. With Linux-&linux-version;, this is the case with ISA
+      busses. Expect this issue to be fixed in later kernel versions.</para>
 
-        <para>This will cause the system to load both the
-        <emphasis>snd-pcm</emphasis> and <emphasis>snd-pcm-oss</emphasis>
-        modules when any request is made to load the driver
-        <emphasis>snd-pcm</emphasis>.</para>
-      </listitem>
-    </itemizedlist>
+      <para>Udev is not intended to load <quote>wrapper</quote> drivers such as
+      <emphasis>snd-pcm-oss</emphasis> and non-hardware drivers such as
+      <emphasis>loop</emphasis> at all.</para>
 
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>A kernel module is not loaded automatically, and Udev is not
+      intended to load it</title>
+
+      <para>If the <quote>wrapper</quote> module only enhances the functionality
+      provided by some other module (e.g., <emphasis>snd-pcm-oss</emphasis>
+      enhances the functionality of <emphasis>snd-pcm</emphasis> by making the
+      sound cards available to OSS applications), configure
+      <command>modprobe</command> to load the wrapper after Udev loads the
+      wrapped module. To do this, add an <quote>install</quote> line in
+      <filename>/etc/modprobe.conf</filename>. For example:</para>
+
+<screen role="nodump"><literal>install snd-pcm /sbin/modprobe -i snd-pcm ; \
+    /sbin/modprobe snd-pcm-oss ; true</literal></screen>
+
+      <para>If the module in question is not a wrapper and is useful by itself,
+      configure the <command>S05modules</command> bootscript to load this
+      module on system boot. To do this, add the module name to the
+      <filename>/etc/sysconfig/modules</filename> file on a separate line.
+      This works for wrapper modules too, but is suboptimal in that case.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Udev loads some unwanted module</title>
+
+      <para>Either don't build the module, or blacklist it in
+      <filename>/etc/modprobe.conf</filename> file as done with the
+      <emphasis>forte</emphasis> module in the example below:</para>
+
+<screen role="nodump"><literal>blacklist forte</literal></screen>
+
+      <para>Blacklisted modules can still be loaded manually with the
+      explicit <command>modprobe</command> command.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Udev creates a device incorrectly, or makes a wrong symlink</title>
+
+      <para>This usually happens if a rule unexpectedly matches a device. For
+      example, a poorly-writen rule can match both a SCSI disk (as desired)
+      and the corresponding SCSI generic device (incorrectly) by vendor.
+      Find the offending rule and make it more specific.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Udev rule works unreliably</title>
+
+      <para>This may be another manifestation of the previous problem. If not,
+      and your rule uses <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>
+      attributes, it may be a kernel timing issue, to be fixed in later kernels.
+      For now, you can work around it by creating a rule that waits for the used
+      <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> attribute and appending
+      it to the <filename>/etc/udev/rules.d/10-wait_for_sysfs.rules</filename>
+      file. Please notify the LFS Development list if you do so and it
+      helps.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Udev does not create a device</title>
+
+      <para>Further text assumes that the driver is built statically into the
+      kernel or already loaded as a module, and that you have already checked
+      that Udev doesn't create a misnamed device.</para>
+
+      <para>Udev has no information needed to create a device node if a kernel
+      driver does not export its data to <systemitem
+      class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem>.
+      This is most common with third party drivers from outside the kernel
+      tree. Create a static device node in
+      <filename>/lib/udev/devices</filename> with the appropriate major/minor
+      numbers (see the file <filename>devices.txt</filename> inside the kernel
+      documentation or the documentation provided by the third party driver
+      vendor). The static device node will be copied to
+      <filename class="directory">/dev</filename> by the
+      <command>S10udev</command> bootscript.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
+    <sect3>
+      <title>Device naming order changes randomly after rebooting</title>
+
+      <para>This is due to the fact that Udev, by design, handles uevents and
+      loads modules in parallel, and thus in an unpredictable order. This will
+      never be <quote>fixed</quote>. You should not rely upon the kernel device
+      names being stable. Instead, create your own rules that make symlinks with
+      stable names based on some stable attributes of the device, such as a
+      serial number or the output of various *_id utilities installed by Udev.
+      See <xref linkend="ch-scripts-symlinks"/> and
+      <xref linkend="ch-scripts-network"/> for examples.</para>
+
+    </sect3>
+
   </sect2>
 
   <sect2>
@@ -213,18 +329,22 @@
     sites:</para>
 
     <itemizedlist>
+
       <listitem>
         <para remap="verbatim">A Userspace Implementation of <systemitem class="filesystem">devfs</systemitem>
         <ulink url="http://www.kroah.com/linux/talks/ols_2003_udev_paper/Reprint-Kroah-Hartman-OLS2003.pdf"/></para>
       </listitem>
+
       <listitem>
         <para remap="verbatim">udev FAQ
         <ulink url="http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev-FAQ"/></para>
       </listitem>
+
       <listitem>
-        <para remap="verbatim">The Linux Kernel Driver Model
-        <ulink url="http://public.planetmirror.com/pub/lca/2003/proceedings/papers/Patrick_Mochel/Patrick_Mochel.pdf"/></para>
+        <para remap="verbatim">The <systemitem class="filesystem">sysfs</systemitem> Filesystem
+        <ulink url="http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/mochel/doc/papers/ols-2005/mochel.pdf"/></para>
       </listitem>
+
     </itemizedlist>
 
   </sect2>

Modified: trunk/BOOK/cross-tools/x86/gcc-static.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/cross-tools/x86/gcc-static.xml	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/cross-tools/x86/gcc-static.xml	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@
     gcc/Makefile.in.orig > gcc/Makefile.in</userinput></screen>
 
     <important os="ak">
-      <para>The above patches and sed's are critical in ensuring a
+      <para>The above modifications are critical in ensuring a
       successful overall build. Do not forget to apply them.</para>
     </important>
 

Modified: trunk/BOOK/final-system/64/gcc.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/final-system/64/gcc.xml	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/final-system/64/gcc.xml	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -29,8 +29,8 @@
     href="../common/gcc.xml"
     xpointer="xpointer(//*[@os='p2'])"/>
 
-    <para os="p3">Apply the following patch to so that linking to /lib64 is now set
-    to /lib.</para>
+    <para os="p3">Apply the following patch so that GCC links to /lib64
+    instead of /lib:</para>
 
 <screen os="p4"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&gcc-pure64-patch;</userinput></screen>
 

Modified: trunk/BOOK/final-system/common/glibc.xml
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/final-system/common/glibc.xml	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/final-system/common/glibc.xml	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@
     perfectly, even though the compiler specs file and linker are still
     pointing at <filename class="directory">/tools</filename>. The specs
     and linker cannot be adjusted before the Glibc install because the
-    Glibc autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal
+    Glibc Autoconf tests would give false results and defeat the goal
     of achieving a clean build.</para>
 
     <para os="c">The following patch fixes an issue that can
@@ -54,8 +54,9 @@
 
 <screen os="p2"><userinput>patch -Np1 -i ../&glibc-iconv_fix-patch;</userinput></screen>
 
-    <para os="s1">The following sed fixes a build issue with Glibc. This
-    will prevent nscd from trying to link to libraries that don't exist:</para>
+    <para os="s1">The following <command>sed</command> fixes a build issue
+    with Glibc. This will prevent <command>nscd</command> from trying to
+    link to libraries that don't exist:</para>
 
 <screen os="s2"><userinput>cp -v nscd/Makefile{,.orig}
 sed -e "/nscd_stat.o: sysincludes = # nothing/d" nscd/Makefile.orig > \

Modified: trunk/BOOK/general.ent
===================================================================
--- trunk/BOOK/general.ent	2006-08-06 23:46:46 UTC (rev 2180)
+++ trunk/BOOK/general.ent	2006-08-07 15:46:49 UTC (rev 2181)
@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
 
 <!ENTITY month "08"> <!-- Use two digits -->
 <!ENTITY month_name "August">
-<!ENTITY day "06"> <!-- Use two digits -->
+<!ENTITY day "07"> <!-- Use two digits -->
 <!ENTITY year "2006"> <!-- Use four digits -->
 
 <!ENTITY releasedate "&month_name; &day;, &year;">




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