LFS HINT

Eric D Crahen crahen at cse.Buffalo.EDU
Mon Feb 4 04:10:37 PST 2002


Updated gcc hint


- Eric
http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~crahen
-------------- next part --------------

TITLE:		Multiple GCC Installations
LFS VERSION:	All
AUTHOR:		Eric Crahen <crahen at cse.buffalo.edu>

SYNOPSIS:

	
	This is a set of instructions for people interested in installing 
	and using several versions of gcc on thier system. The compiler's
	public interfaces are renamed to include version numbers (e.g.
	gcc-2.95.3), version specific dependancies, such as includes and 
	shared libraries are storeed in different locations and evironment 
	variables replace can be used to select a compiler (rather than 
	global names such as /usr/bin or /lib/cpp)


OBTAIN THE SOURCE:


	First, you need to obtain the version of gcc you wish to compile 
	and install along with any patches that come with it. The example, 
	will demonstrate how to install two common versions of the compiler.
	
	EGCS-1.1.2:

	ftp://sourceware.cygnus.com/pub/gcc/old-releases/egcs/
	http://gcc.gnu.org/install/glibc-2.2.patch

	GCC-2.95.3:

	ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/gcc/


COMPILE THE SOURCE & INSTALL:

	
	Next, the source needs to be configured. This is done in the usual 
	way, the important configuration options are the following:
  

	--enable-version-specific-runtime-libs
 
	Keeps the version specific runtime libraries in a compiler specific 
	directory rather than placing them right in ${libdir}. You can read 
	more about this in the gcc documentation (install/CONFIGURE).

	--program-transform-name

	Transforms the binary file names when they are installed using a 
	sed regular expression. This option will be used to append the version
	number as a suffix to the binary names. You can read more about this 
	by running configure (./configure --help).


	The following two examples demonstrate a typical use of these options.

	ECGS-1.1.2:

	sed -e s/gcc-2.95.2/egcs-1.1.2/ glibc-2.2.patch | patch -p0; \
	mkdir egcs-build && cd egcs-build && \
	../egcs-1.1.2/configure --prefix=/usr  \
	--enable-languages --enable-languages=c,c++ \
	--enable-threads=posix \
	--enable-version-specific-runtime-libs \
	--program-transform-name="s/\\\\(.*\\\\)/\\\\1-2.91.66/" && \
	make bootstrap && make install && \
	ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-2.91.66 cc-2.91.66
	
	GCC-2.95.3:

	bzip2 -dc gcc-2.95.3-2.patch.bz2 | patch -Np1; &&
	mkdir ../gcc-build && cd ../gcc-build &&
	../gcc-2.95.3/configure --prefix=/usr \
	--enable-languages --enable-languages=c,c++ \
	--enable-threads=posix \
	--enable-version-specific-runtime-libs \
	--program-transform-name="s/\\\\(.*\\\\)/\\\\1-2.95.3/" && \
	make bootstrap && make install \
	ln -s /usr/bin/gcc-2.95.3 cc-2.95.3


CONFIGURE YOUR ENVIRONMENT:


	To configure the environment, several variables need to be set. One
	is the PATH, it should include the path to wherever the binaries
	have been installed. If the binaries are installed in a location like
	/usr/bin then that location needs to be in your PATH. The two 
	variables that are used to select the compiler also need to be set.
	These are CC and CXX and they should point to cc-version and 
	c++-version respectively.

	For example, if you want gcc-2.95.3 to be the default, the following
	commands can be used.

	CC=cc-2.95.3 && \
	CXX=c++-2.95.3 && \
	export CC CXX

	These commands can be placed in an rc file that will be executed when 
	your shell is spawned. For example, /etc/profile or ~/.bashrc.
	
	GNU tools, such as autoconf or make can detect your compiler by 
	looking at these variables. In most cases, there is nothing extra that
	will need to be done to use these variables to select a compiler. 
	However, there are exceptions and there are notes at the end of the 
	document about those exceptions.


SELECTING A DIFFERENT COMPILER:

	
	Selecting a different compiler simply becomes a matter of chaning 
	the value of the CC and CXX variables.

	For instance, to switch from the currently selected compiler to 
	egcs the following commands can be used 
 
	CC=cc-2.91.66 && \
	CXX=c++-2.91.66 && \
	export CC CXX



NOTES:



	1.) The '--program-transform-name' option doesn't do anything!?


	This is can be frustrating because you won't find the error until
	you have compiled and installed the source and notices the binary
	names have not changed. The reason is almost certainly because the
	regular expression has not been escaped properly. Test your expression
	with sed and quadruple the number of \'s used to escape it.

	Why? Well, suppose you want to add a suffix to a word. The following 
	sed expression does this. You need to escape special characters for 
	sed.

	echo name | sed -e "s/\(.*\)/\1-suffix/"
	
	If you want to get that expression into a Makefile as a string that 
	the Makefile will eventually execute, you have to escape that 
	expression.

	s/\\(.*\\)/\\1-suffix/

	So, to get the string show above from a shell prompt into any program 
	you have to escape it again for the shell. So you end up with,

	s/\\\\(.*\\\\)/\\\\1-suffix/

	And the configure option becomes,

	--program-transform-name="s/\\\\(.*\\\\)/\\\\1-suffix/"


	2.) Things compile, but they are broken!?


	You may be are mixing compiler versions. Make sure your CC and CXX
	variables are both using the binaries with the same suffix.
	

	DON'T (suffixes are mismatched)

	CC=cc-2.91.66
	CXX=cc-2.95.3

	DO (suffixes are matched)

	CC=cc-2.95.3 
	CXX=cc-2.95.3


	3.) glibc doesn't compile now!?

	Because glibc assumes your c preprocessor is named cpp and is
	located in /lib/cpp you may have difficulty compiling glibc.
	To make glibc choose the correct preprocessor binary the following
	path can be applied to the source for glibc-2.2.4 so the correct
	compiler will be chosen for a linux system.

cat > glibc-2.2.4-cpp0.patch << "EOF"		 

2002-20 Eric Crahen <crahen at cse.buffalo.edu>

Make sunrpc compile selecting the version specific 
c preprocessor reported by whatever gcc CC points at.

--- glibc-2.2.4-vanilla/sunrpc/rpc_main.c	Thu Apr 12 17:02:07 2001
+++ glibc-2.2.4/sunrpc/rpc_main.c	Sun Jan 20 20:35:51 2002
@@ -1323,7 +1323,7 @@
 		    return 0;
 		  {
 		    size_t len = strlen (argv[i]);
-		    pathbuf = malloc (len + 5);
+		    pathbuf = malloc (len + 6);
 		    if (pathbuf == NULL)
 		      {
 			perror (cmdname);
@@ -1331,7 +1331,7 @@
 		      }
 		    stpcpy (stpcpy (pathbuf,
 				    argv[i]),
-			    "/cpp");
+			    "/cpp0");
 		    CPP = pathbuf;
 		    cppDefined = 1;
 		    goto nextarg;
--- glibc-2.2.4-vanilla/sunrpc/Makefile	Mon Jul 23 13:55:17 2001
+++ glibc-2.2.4/sunrpc/Makefile	Sun Jan 20 20:31:26 2002
@@ -126,8 +126,8 @@
 	$(+link)
 
 # Tell rpcgen where to find the C preprocessor.
-rpcgen-cmd = $(built-program-cmd) -Y `$(CC) -print-file-name=cpp | \
-				      sed 's|/cpp$$||'`
+rpcgen-cmd = $(built-program-cmd) -Y `$(CC) -print-file-name=cpp0 | \
+				      sed 's|/cpp0$$||'`
 
 # Install the rpc data base file.
 $(inst_sysconfdir)/rpc: etc.rpc $(+force)
EOF


	4.) The kernel doesn't compile now!?


	In the kernel, 'gcc' is hard coded gcc into the Makefile. One way to 
	overcome this is to use sed.

	sed -e s/gcc/$CC/ Makefile | make -f - dep && \
	sed -e s/gcc/$CC/ Makefile | make -f - modules && \
	sed -e s/gcc/$CC/ Makefile | make -f - modules_install && \
	sed -e s/gcc/$CC/ Makefile | make -f - bzImage


	5.) XFree86 doesn't compile now / An X11 program doesn't compile !?


	Compiling this is tricky when you don't have a common name for your 
	compiler. XFree86 is setup using imake which keeps a database of 
	dependancies. Typically, imake assumes certain compilers are installed
	and looks for them using the common names and locations /lib/cpp and 
	/usr/bin/gcc. These assumptions can be changed by updating the correct
	configuration file in the xc/config/cf directory.

	For a linux system, you can update that file with the following 
	commands.

	cp config/cf/linux.cf config/cf/linux.cf.orig && \
	IMAKECPP=`$CC -print-file-name=cpp0` && export IMAKECPP && \
	sed -e "s/gcc/$CC/;s/.++/$CXX/;" config/cf/linux.cf.orig > \
	/tmp/linux.cf && \
	sed -e s,\\\/lib\\\/cpp,`echo $IMAKECPP | sed 's|/|\\\\/|g'`, \
	/tmp/linux.cf | sed '/# define CppCmd/a \
	# ifndef RawCppCmd \
	#  define RawCppCmd CppCmd -A- \
	# endif \
	' > config/cf/linux.cf && \
	rm -f /tmp/linux.cf

	The top part of this command allows both make and imake to 
	use the compiler names you specify in CC and CXX.

	The lower portion,

	sed '/# define CppCmd/a\
	# ifndef RawCppCmd \
	#  define RawCppCmd CppCmd -A- \
	# endif \
	'
	Tells the preprocessor to use the correct undef option. 
	By default, it will attempt to used -undef, which may not 
	work with your compiler depending on the version and how you've 
	compiled it. The wrong undef option will cause you to end up with
	a bunch of blank man pages.

	Some X11 program use imake, so you might want to place those 
	first few lines (those that define IMAKECPP) in an rc file.
 	
	6.) Another program doesn't compile now!?


	I've shown two of the trickier programs to compile. The vast majority
	of source not configurable using autoconf will set a variable for the 
	compiler in a Makefile. To overcome that, all that needs to be done is 
	to override that variable.

	You can tell make to look at your environment using 'make -e'.
	OR
	You can set some vairables 'using make VAR=val'.
	

	7.) My cross compiler isn't renamed!?


	This is because of how gcc built. You can change the 
	program_transform_name variable in the Makefile, but you can't change 
	the program_transform_cross_name variable. To update that you'd need
	to edit the Makefile template in the gcc subdirectory of your gcc 
	source tree. Below is a patch for this that will patch the two
	compilers used as examples throughout the document.

cat > gcc-cross-rename.patch << "EOF"		 

2002-21 Eric Crahen <crahen at cse.buffalo.edu>
	
	* Rename the cross compiler binaries to have a version
	  suffix for GCC-2.95.3 and EGCS-1.1.2
 
--- gcc-2.95.3/gcc/Makefile.in.orig	Mon Jan 21 09:19:33 2002
+++ gcc-2.95.3/gcc/Makefile.in	Mon Jan 21 09:20:47 2002
@@ -2569,7 +2569,7 @@
 	  $(INSTALL_PROGRAM) xgcc$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(GCC_INSTALL_NAME)$(exeext); \
 	  rm -f $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext); \
 	  $(LN) $(bindir)/$(GCC_INSTALL_NAME)$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext); \
-	  mv $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc$(exeext); \
+	  mv $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-2.95.3$(exeext); \
 	fi
 
 # Install the info files.

--- egcs-1.1.2/gcc/Makefile.in.orig	Mon Jan 21 08:41:22 2002
+++ egcs-1.1.2/gcc/Makefile.in	Mon Jan 21 08:57:45 2002
@@ -2403,7 +2403,7 @@
 	  $(INSTALL_PROGRAM) xgcc$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(GCC_INSTALL_NAME)$(exeext); \
 	  rm -f $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext); \
 	  $(LN) $(bindir)/$(GCC_INSTALL_NAME)$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext); \
-	  mv $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc$(exeext); \
+	  mv $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-1$(exeext) $(bindir)/$(target_alias)-gcc-2.91.66$(exeext); \
 	fi
 
 # Install the info files.
EOF


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