updated user mode linux and pth hints

rwhron at earthlink.net rwhron at earthlink.net
Wed Jan 2 21:37:09 PST 2002

Here are the latest:

Randy Hron
-------------- next part --------------
TITLE:		pth library
AUTHOR:		Randy Hron <rwhron (at) earthlink.net>

	How to build pth library


pth is a portable threading library from GNU.  It is an alternative to


This is the meat of the hint.   Here is what worked for me:

/configure --disable-nls --with-mctx-mth=sjlj --with-mctx-dsp=ssjlj --with-mctx-stk=sas

--disable-nls is up to you.  May not make any difference at all for pth.  I use it 
because I'm happy with the Common locale.


make && make test && make install

Why pth?


ldd /usr/local/bin/mp3blaster

	libvorbisfile.so.0 => /usr/local/lib/libvorbisfile.so.0 (0x4001f000)
	libvorbis.so.0 => /usr/local/lib/libvorbis.so.0 (0x40024000)
	libncurses.so.5 => /lib/libncurses.so.5 (0x4003a000)
	libpthread.so.0 => /lib/libpthread.so.0 (0x4007d000)
	libstdc++-libc6.2-2.so.3 => /usr/lib/libstdc++-libc6.2-2.so.3 (0x40091000)
	libm.so.6 => /lib/libm.so.6 (0x400dc000)
	libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x400ff000)
	libogg.so.0 => /usr/local/lib/libogg.so.0 (0x40222000)
	/lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)

root at rushmore:/usr/src/sources/m# ps aux|egrep 'mp3|VSZ'
hrandoz  28961  0.1  0.2 10976 1508 tty5     S    19:09   0:00 mp3blaster
hrandoz  28962  0.0  0.2 10976 1508 tty5     S    19:09   0:00 mp3blaster
hrandoz  28963  0.0  0.2 10976 1508 tty5     S    19:09   0:00 mp3blaster

That's mp3blaster at startup.

Play a few big mp3's:

ps aux|egrep 'mp3|VSZ'
hrandoz  28961  0.0  0.8 46356 4320 tty5     S    19:09   0:00 mp3blaster
hrandoz  28962  0.0  0.8 46356 4320 tty5     S    19:09   0:00 mp3blaster
hrandoz  28963  3.4  0.8 46356 4320 tty5     S    19:09   0:04 mp3blaster
hrandoz  28977  0.3  0.8 46356 4320 tty5     S    19:11   0:00 mp3blaster

See how the VSZ got big?


Recompile mp3blaster:

/configure --disable-nls --with-pthreads=no --with-pth=yes

ldd /usr/local/bin/mp3blaster

	libvorbisfile.so.0 => /usr/local/lib/libvorbisfile.so.0 (0x4001f000)
	libvorbis.so.0 => /usr/local/lib/libvorbis.so.0 (0x40024000)
	libncurses.so.5 => /lib/libncurses.so.5 (0x4003a000)
	libpth.so.14 => /usr/lib/libpth.so.14 (0x4007d000)
	libstdc++-libc6.2-2.so.3 => /usr/lib/libstdc++-libc6.2-2.so.3 (0x4008f000)
	libm.so.6 => /lib/libm.so.6 (0x400da000)
	libc.so.6 => /lib/libc.so.6 (0x400fd000)
	libogg.so.0 => /usr/local/lib/libogg.so.0 (0x40220000)
	/lib/ld-linux.so.2 => /lib/ld-linux.so.2 (0x40000000)

Before playing anything:

hrandoz  30442  0.0  0.2  2940 1504 tty5     S    19:16   0:00 mp3blaster

Note, there is only one thread.

After playing a bunch of songs:

root at rushmore:/usr/src/sources/m/mp3blaster-3.0# ps aux|egrep 'VSZ|mp3'
hrandoz  30442  4.1  0.3  3004 1744 tty5     S    19:16   0:05 mp3blaster

Hey, it's much smaller.  :)

Note that under extreme load, mp3blaster skips more with pth than

Thu Jan  3 00:29:50 EST 2002
-------------- next part --------------
TITLE:		User Mode Linux
AUTHOR:		Randy Hron <rwhron (at) earthlink.net>
	How to configure a basic user-mode-linux on lfs.
This hint is for user-mode-linux (UML) for linux-2.4.x.  It helps you 
build a UML kernel and create a small root filesystem for UML.  The
kernel and root_fs build are done with two scripts.  build_uml
builds the UML kernel and build_rootfs creates a root filesystem.  
The root filesystem we build can be configured to automatically mount 
the host / and /usr/src filesystems.  For this reason, and many others
it's best to only run UML as a non-root user.   You will have to be
root to create the root_fs though.

Why user-mode-linux?
Where can I find out more?
UML Patch for 2.4.x kernel
What do I need?
Assumptions for this hint
Installing uml_utilities
Building the user-mode-linux kernel
build_uml - Build UML kernel script from source
Comments on UML kernel build commands
Cleaning up UML processes
Creating a root filesystem for user-mode-linux
build_rootfs - Root filesystem build script
Comments on commands to build root_fs
Logging in
Using mconsole
Taking down UML
Taking down loopback filesystem if something went wrong
	Xterm insane after shutdown
	Panic when you have root_fs
	Error building kernel
	kernel BUG at page_alloc.c:112!
	ifconfig error
	ioctl: LOOP_SET_FD: Device or resource busy
	make does not return when compiling with UML
Other helpful docs
IRC Resources
Mailing lists

This information is meant to be helpful only.  It contains the scripts I use.
There is no warranty of any kind.  If you use this information, you take full
liability for anything that goes wrong.

Why user-mode-linux?
Experimentation.  It's fun.  You could try a new glibc without fear of changing 
your LFS by running it in user-mode-linux first.  Setup a virtual network with only 
one box.  Answer questions like, "what happens if I...". 

Where can I find out more?
Project:  http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/
HOWTO:    http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/UserModeLinux-HOWTO.html
Download: http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net/dl-sf.html

UML Patch for 2.4.x kernel
The patch for user-mode-linux is available through the Download link.  You need 
the UML patch for the kernel you want to build.   The UML kernel version can
be different from your host system.  I.E. you can run 2.4.14 on LFS and boot
a 2.4.17 UML kernel.  The UML patches come out quite regularly, so check the
UML webite for patches for newer kernels.  The latest uml-patch should be the

uml-patch-2.4.17-3.bz2 goes with kernel linux-2.4.17.  This example happens 
to be the 3rd UML release for 2.4.17.

host:			Your linux box.  It is "hosting" the virtual
			UML machine(s).
host kernel:		The kernel for your LFS system.  It "hosts" the
			UML kernel.
kernel pool:		Source code tree of stable kernel.  (extracted
			2.4.x kernel tarball).
pool:			The HOWTO uses pool to refer to a directory tree,
			like cvs, linux source, or the UML source tree.
UML:			User Mode Linux
vanilla kernel:		Term some people call the official Linus (or Marcelo) 
			stable release.
virtual machine: 	Another name for a UML instance.

What do I need?
linux-2.4.17.tar.bz2 kernel source
readline-4.2 or greater.		# for uml_utilities.
reiserfsprogs-3.x.0k-pre14 or greater	# 3.x.0j may work.

The versions above were current when this hint was written.  Newer 
versions will work similarly, but you will have to edit the build_uml
script or pass it a command line argument.

Assumptions for this hint
o  You have the files in the "What do I need" section above.
o  You have Loopback Device (CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP) support configured in 
   your host kernel (this doesn't mean lo0 =  Loopback block
   device allows a regular file to be used as a block device.  We use
   this feature to create the UML filesystem.
o  You have TUN/TAP (CONFIG_TUN) configured in your kernel.
o  You don't have anything in /mnt/uml or /usr/src/uml, as the build scripts
   included here will unquestionably stomp these directories, (unless you 
   pass appropriate arguments to the scripts).
o  You have reiserfsprogs installed, and CONFIG_REISERFS_FS=y set in your host 
   linux .config.  ext[23] will work also; you'll have to change the build_rootfs 
   for ext[23] though. 
o  You have at least 32 megs of free ram.  You can boot UML with less, by passing 
   mem=#m on the command line.  I.E. ./linux init=/bin/bash mem=16m will boot a 
   virtual machine with 16 megs of ram.  8 megs is about as small as you can go.

Installing uml_utilities
We start by installing the uml_utilities.  

tar xjf uml_utilities_20011227.tar.bz2 && 
cd tools && make && make install

The commands above install five UML utilities in /usr/bin on the "host" system
(your LFS box).  

uml_mconsole is the management console for a UML.

uml_moo is a clever name for copy on write (COW) merge utility.   The idea
of COW is that you can share a root_fs (backing store, actually) between 
multiple UML's, and changes are written to a COW file.  This utility lets 
you merge the COW file with the backing store.  Check out the UML website
for details.  This hint won't use uml_moo.

uml_net is for setting up a network between the host system and UML.  
uml_net must be installed setuid root so you can setup networking when
you run UML as a non-root user.

uml_switch lets you setup a router network between UML's and the host system.
uml_switch is also installed in /usr/bin on the host system.  This hint 
doesn't use uml_switch.

Helper for the port channel.  This hint doesn't use port_helper either.

Building the user-mode-linux kernel
IMPORTANT NOTE: Don't build user-mode-linux in /usr/src/linux because UML 
replaces some headers that other linux programs could use.  Also, you don't 
want to stomp your "host" kernel source.

Note: the scripts below assume your linux kernel source is in 
/usr/src/sources/l and the user-mode-linux patch in /usr/src/sources/u.
Change these paths to match where you have the kernel and uml-patch 

There is some explanation of the scripts below each one.

build_uml - Build UML kernel script from source

# build_uml - create user mode linux kernel from source
# the defaults are good for me, they probably aren't good for you.
# @(#) $Id: build_uml,v 1.6 2002/01/03 05:21:32 hrandoz Exp $


echo "$command is meant to abort if it encounters a problem."
echo "The idea is that you can address that problem,"
echo "then re-run $command from the begining."

# defaults

function usage {
	echo "usage: $command [ -d /path/to/uml/target ] "
	echo "	[ -k /path/to/kernel/tarball.tar.bz2 ] [ -s ] [ -t tar_unZ_opt ]"
	echo "	[ -u /path/to/uml/patch.bz2 ] [ -v ]" >&2
	echo "example: $command -d${uml_dest} -k${kernel_tarball} \\"
	echo "		-u${uml_patch}" >&2
	echo "options					defaults" >&2
	echo " d	destination for uml tree	$uml_dest" >&2
	echo " k	linux tarball			$kernel_tarball" >&2
	echo " s	silent make			$make_opt" >&2
	echo " t	tar uncompress option		$tar_z_opt" >&2
	echo " u	user-mode-linux patch		$uml_patch" >&2
	echo " v	verbose" >&2
	echo "" >&2
	exit 1

# options
# d	destination for uml tree
# k	linux tarball
# s	silent make
# t	tar uncompress option
# u	user-mode-linux patch
# v	verbose
while getopts :d:k:st:u:v arg
	case $arg in
		d)	uml_dest=$OPTARG;;
		k)	kernel_tarball=$OPTARG;;
		s)	make_opt=-s;;
		t)	tar_z_opt=$OPTARG;;
		u)	uml_patch=$OPTARG;;
		# 	v doubles as an option for tar
		v)	verbose=v;;
		\?)	echo "$command: Invalid switch $OPTARG" >&2
		*)	usage;;

# sanity checks
if	[[ ! -f $kernel_tarball ]]
then	echo -e "\nThere is not kernel tarball in $kernel_tarball" >&2
if	[[ ! -f $uml_patch ]]
then	echo -e "\nThere is no uml patch in $uml_patch" >&2
if	[[ ! -f /usr/src/linux/.config ]]
then	echo -e "\nThere is no /usr/src/linux/.config file," >&2
	echo -e "which is where $command wanted to get your host config." >&2

if	[[ $verbose ]]
then	echo
	echo "Current options:" >&2
	echo "uml_dest=$uml_dest" >&2
	echo "kernel_tarball=$kernel_tarball" >&2
	echo "make_opt=$make_opt" >&2
	echo "tar_z_opt=$tar_z_opt" >&2
	echo "uml_patch=$uml_patch" >&2
	echo "verbose=$verbose" >&2

if	[[ $error = yes ]]
then	echo -e "\nErrors detected ... $command will exit.\n" >&2
	echo -e "The current options are listed above.\n" >&2

[ -c /dev/tap0 ] || mknod /dev/tap0 c 36 16 &&
echo -n "ok to remove $uml_dest (y/N)? "
read answer
case $answer in
y*|Y*)	echo "removing $uml_dest"
	rm -rf $uml_dest
*)	echo
	echo "$command rebuilds the entire uml kernel tree from scratch."
	echo "If $uml_dest isn't where you want the uml kernel built,"
	echo "try passing -u /where/i/want/uml/kernel/built to ${command}."
	echo "exiting."
mkdir $uml_dest &&
cd $uml_dest &&
echo "extracting $kernel_tarball in $PWD" &&
tar x${tar_z_opt}${verbose}f $kernel_tarball &&
cd linux &&
# perhaps we should allow other compression formats.
echo "applying $uml_patch"
bzcat $uml_patch|patch -p1 &&
make mrproper &&
make mrproper ARCH=um &&
# forgot why we do this
unset PAGER &&
if	[[ -f /usr/src/linux/.config ]]
then	cp /usr/src/linux/.config ${uml_dest}/linux &&
	yes "y" | make oldconfig ARCH=um
else	echo "no .config in /usr/src/linux"
	echo "using default configuration, which may (not) work"
fi &&
# there was a bug around 2.4.9 that required these sed statements.
sed 's:^CONFIG_GPROF.*:# CONFIG_GPROF is not set:' .config>.config~ &&
mv .config~ .config &&
sed 's:^CONFIG_GCOV.*:# CONFIG_GCOV is not set:' .config>.config~ &&
mv .config~ .config &&
yes "" | make config ARCH=um &&
make dep ARCH=um &&
make linux ARCH=um &&
make modules ARCH=um 

echo "The UML kernel is in $uml_dest/linux"
echo "You'll need a root filesystem."
echo "Run 'build_rootfs' to create a root filesystem in $uml_dest/linux"
# end of build_uml

Comments on UML kernel build commands
Extract the pristine linux source for your UML tree.  Install the UML patch.
Keep most of your current configuration (if possible) by copying .config 
from /usr/src/linux (not really necessary, just convenient).  Say "y" 
to the new config options from the UML patch.  We run 'sed' against the 
config file as CONFIG_GPROF and CONFIG_GCOV were not be working perfectly 
when this was written.  Unset PAGER because I saw "make oldconfig" using 
$PAGER once and didn't like it.  Creates /dev/tap0 if it doesn't exist.  
(you set CONFIG_TUN in your host kernel, right?)

Changing UML kernel configuration
If you want to change the configuration for UML from what the host system
has, you can:

cd /usr/src/uml/linux
make menuconfig ARCH=um
make dep ARCH=um
make linux ARCH=um
make modules ARCH=um

First boot (maybe)
After running the commands above you will have a file called 
/usr/src/uml/linux/linux.  This is the UML kernel.  You can run it now as
any user (preferably not root, just to be safe).  It will panic because
there is no root filesystem for UML yet.  Here is then end of the boot
when there is no rootfs:

ubd0: Can't open "root_fs": errno = 2
VFS: Cannot open root device "ubd0" or 62:00
Please append a correct "root=" boot option
Kernel panic: VFS: Unable to mount root fs on 62:00

No problem, we'll create a root filesystem in a little bit.  Just hit
<ctrl c> to kill the UML process.

Cleaning up UML processes
If you were couragous and booted the kernel without root_fs to see the panic, 
you'll have some UML processes hanging around.  You can kill them with a
command like:

kill -9 $(ps -fu $LOGNAME|awk '/linux/ {print $2}')

or an alias like:

alias kuml="kill -9 \$(ps -fu\$LOGNAME|awk '/\.\/[l]inux/ {print \$2}')"

Creating a root filesystem for user-mode-linux
User mode linux will have it's own filesystem.  You have to have 
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP defined in your kernel to create a root filesystem 
for user-mode-linux.  Look at your /usr/src/linux/.config file to see
if you already have the block loopback device.  If you don't, configure
and compile your normal (host) boot kernel before continuing. 

We'll create a 200 megabyte root filesystem using reiserfs.  This filesystem
will not contain everything that a basic LFS system has, but it could.  For
now, just /bin /sbin /lib, and a few bits of /usr/bin and /etc.

Note: The script below uses "here documents" and is very sensitive to 
extraneous spaces.  I.E. a space after a '!' character can cause the
script to not complete.  The safe way to execute this is to pop this
file into vim and grab the script verbatum.  Then read it and change
what you want.

There are some variables you may want to change in the script:

About 33 lines into the script there is an "export user=hrandoz"
line.  You want to change that to whatever user you normally login as.  
We will grab /etc/passwd from the host system, so root for UML will be
your normal root password.

55 lines into the script you can set "hostfs=true" if you want UML 
to access the the host root and /usr/src filesystems.

Look at the script closely.  There may be some other things you
want to change too.  Most of the things you may want to modify
are in the first 75 lines or so.

build_rootfs - root filesystem build script

#!/bin/bash -e
# note the "-e" above - it means exit script on any error.
# @(#) $Id: build_rootfs,v 1.4 2001/12/28 10:58:10 root Exp hrandoz $

# build_rootfs - create a basic root filesystem for user mode linux
# uses BSD style init scripts.  (nice and simple).


# root has to run build_rootfs to execute losetup environment.
if	[[ $UID != 0 ]]
then	echo "root has to run $command for losetup" >&2
	exit 1

# $uml is where root_fs will be temporarily mounted while
# it is built.  $uml_root will get blown away by this script.

# loopback block device - $loop will be mounted on $uml_root

# cleanup if build_rootfs bombed in a previous run.
if	mount|grep $uml_root >/dev/null
then	umount $uml_root
	losetup -d $loop

# uml_dest is the directory the uml root filesystem will be built in.

# root_fs is the default name, if you change it, you'll have to
# pass an option to uml with the rootfs name.
# if user is set, the script will su to $user and boot uml at the end
# of build_rootfs
export user=hrandoz

# size of filesystem in megs

# hostname for uml
# uml_tun_ip is the address you want the uml machine to have.
# interface address of tap0 (interface to uml) - becomes uml defaultroute.
# this should not be the same as eth0 or ppp0.

# hostfs lets you mount host filesystem under uml

# set hostfs to true to mount host / on /mnt/$host and
# host /usr/src under /mnt/$host/usr/src

# set devel=true if you want compilers and header files.

# command to create filesystem --format 3.6 needed for 
# reiserfsprogs 3.x.0k-pre14 on linux-2.5.x host, to get
# the --format option for mkreiserfs.
#mkfs="mkreiserfs --format 3.6"

# set network_server=true if you want uml network server commands

function usage {
	echo "usage: $command [ -d /path/to/uml/dest ] [ -f ] [ -g ] [ -h uml_hostname ]"
	echo "	[ -i uml_ipaddress ] [ -m megs ] [ -n ] [ -s ] [ -r /path/to/uml_root ]"
	echo "	[ -u /path/to/uml/patch.bz2 ] [ -v ]" >&2
	echo "example: $command -d/usr/src/uml -f -h myuml -i \\"
	echo "	-m 500 -r/mnt/uml2 >&2"
	echo "options					defaults" >&2
	echo " d	destination for uml tree	$uml_dest" >&2
	echo " f	use hostfs			$hostfs" >&2
	echo " g	add development files		$devel" >&2
	echo " h	uml hostname			$uml_hostname" >&2
	echo " i	uml ip address			$uml_tun_ip" >&2
	echo " m	rootfs size in MB		$megs" >&2
	echo " n	network server			$network_server" >&2
	echo " r	uml root for build		$uml_root" >&2
	echo " s	silent make			true" >&2
	echo "" >&2
	exit 1

# options
# d     destination for uml tree
# s     silent make
# t     tar uncompress option
# u     user-mode-linux patch
# v     verbose
while getopts :d:fgh:i:m:ns arg
        case $arg in
                d)      uml_dest=$OPTARG;;
                f)      hostfs=true;;
		g)	devel=false;;	# guru
                h)      uml_hostname=$OPTARG;;
                i)      uml_tun_ip=$OPTARG;;
		m)	megs=$OPTARG;;	# number
		n)	network_server=false;;
                r)      uml_root=$OPTARG;;
                s)      make_opt=-s;;
                \?)     echo "$command: Invalid switch $OPTARG" >&2
                *)      usage;;

# list of daemons in /usr/sbin that you want if network_server=true
network_usr_sbin_daemons="inetd in.telnetd in.rlogind in.ftpd tcpd"

# commands to grab from /usr/bin on host machine
usr_bin="awk basename bc cal chroot cksum clear cmp col cut dc diff dirname ed
egrep ex expr file find fmt fold free ftp fuser gawk getconf grep head id join
last ldd nohup od passwd paste perl pkill procinfo reset setterm sleep sort split
strace strings tail tee test time top tput tr tset tty uptime vi vim vmstat xargs
w wc who"

# these might help figuring out <ctrl c \>
key_cmds="dumpkeys  getkeycodes  setkeycodes  showkey"

usr_bin="$usr_bin $key_cmds"

# eliminate any files that haven't been installed
for f in $usr_bin
do	[ -f /usr/bin/$f ] && ub="$ub $f"

# readprofile requires System.map
usr_sbin="klogd readprofile sshd syslogd xinetd"
# eliminate any files that haven't been installed
for f in $usr_sbin
do	[ -f /usr/sbin/$f ] && us="$us $f"

# /usr/bin commands included if $devel is true
usr_bin_dev="ar as as86 as86_encap autoconf autoexpect autoheader automake
autoreconf autoscan autoupdate bison c++ c++filt cc cpp flex flex++ g++ gasp
gcc gdb ld ld86 m4 make nm nm86 objcopy objdump objdump86 patch ranlib size
size86 strip"
# eliminate any files that haven't been installed
for f in $usr_bin_dev
do	[ -f /usr/bin/$f ] && ud="$ud $f"

# set v=v for verbose build

# argument to make ARCH=um install_modules quiet

########### end of configuration setup ##############

# host system will need a tap interface
if	[[ ! -c /dev/tap0 ]]
then	mknod /dev/tap0 c 36 16  

cd $uml_dest/linux

# use /dev/zero for building a file full of 00000000's
if	[[ ! -c /dev/zero ]]
then	mknod --mode 0644 /dev/zero c 1 5

# create root_fs
rm -f $root_fs
dd if=/dev/zero of=$root_fs seek=$megs count=1 bs=1M

# loopback setup
losetup $loop $uml_dest/linux/$root_fs

# take the defaults creating reiserfs
yes | $mkfs $loop

mkdir -p $uml_root

# mount the loopback reiserfs file
mount -t reiserfs $loop $uml_root

cd $uml_root
# create directory structure and copy /lib /sbin /dev into rootfs
mkdir -p bin dev etc lib mnt proc root sbin tmp usr/{bin,sbin,src} var/{log,run,tmp}
chmod 1777 tmp var/tmp

# duplicate the dev directory of the host system 
cd /dev
echo -en "/dev\t\t\t\t\t"
find . -print|cpio -pdm $uml_root/dev
cd $uml_root/dev
# create ttyp (slave) and ptyp (master) for console if necessary.
while ((i <= 8))
do	[[ ! -c ptyp$i ]] && mknod --mode=644 ptyp$i c 2 $i
	[[ ! -c ttyp$i ]] && mknod --mode=644 ttyp$i c 3 $i

# # put everything in /sbin /bin and /lib on uml root_fs
# copy everything in /sbin and /bin on uml root_fs
cd /sbin
echo -en "/sbin\t\t\t\t\t"
find . -print|cpio -pdm $uml_root/sbin
sleep 1
cd /bin
echo -en "/bin\t\t\t\t\t"
find . -print|cpio -pdm $uml_root/bin

# grab some goodies from /usr/bin and /usr/sbin
cd /usr/bin
echo -en "/usr/bin\t\t\t\t"
find $usr_bin|cpio -pdm $uml_root/usr/bin
cd /usr/sbin
echo -en "/usr/sbin\t\t\t\t"
find $usr_sbin|cpio -pdm $uml_root/usr/sbin

# maybe this will make <ctrl c> work for /dev/console (nope)
cd /usr
echo -en "/usr/share/kbd\t\t\t\t"
find share/kbd|cpio -pdm $uml_root/usr
echo -en "/usr/share/misc/magic\t\t\t"
find share/misc/magic*|cpio -pdm $uml_root/usr

# grab linux terminfo and keyboard files
mkdir -p $uml_root/usr/share/terminfo/l
[[ -f /usr/share/terminfo/l/linux ]] && cp -p /usr/share/terminfo/l/linux $uml_root/usr/share/terminfo/l

# development support files
if	[[ $devel == true ]]
then	echo "Including files for development"
	cd /usr/bin
	echo -en "Development commands\t\t\t"
	find $usr_bin_dev|cpio -pdm $uml_root/usr/bin
	# gcc libs
	cd /usr/lib
	echo -en "/usr/lib/gcc-lib\t\t\t"
	find gcc-lib *crt*.o|cpio -pdm $uml_root/usr/lib
	# /usr/$MACHTYPE has some support files for binutils.
	# get header files too
	cd /usr
	echo -en "/usr/include\t\t\t\t"
	find include $MACHTYPE|cpio -pudm $uml_root/usr

# networking
if	[[ $network_server == true ]]
then	cd /usr/sbin
	for f in $network_usr_sbin_daemons
	do	if	[[ -f $f ]]
		then	cp -${v}p $f ${uml_root}/usr/sbin/${f}
			chmod +x ${uml}${f}
	cd -

# get the libs we need
cd $uml_root
echo -en "Libraries\t\t\t\t"
libs=$(ldd sbin/* bin/* usr/sbin/* usr/bin/* 2>/dev/null|
awk '/=>/ {print $3}'|egrep -v '^/lib|perl5/'|sort -u|
sed -e 's:-.*:\*.so\*:' -e 's:\.*so.*:\*so\*:')
cd /
# grab all of /lib, other libs needed by commands, and /usr/lib/libc*
find lib/*so* $libs usr/lib/libc*|sed 's:^/::'|cpio -pudm $uml_root
if	[[ -f $uml_root/usr/bin/perl ]]
then	echo -en "Perl libs\t\t\t\t"
	find usr/lib/perl5|cpio -pdm $uml_root
chmod +x $uml_root/*
# create an empty ld.so.conf for ldconfig
> $uml_root/etc/ld.so.conf
ldconfig -${v}r $uml_root
cd -

echo -en "/etc\t\t\t\t\t"
# some important things in /etc
[[ -f /etc/bashrc ]]		&& cp -p /etc/bashrc $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/hosts ]]		&& cp -p /etc/hosts $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/inetd.conf ]]	&& cp -p /etc/inetd.conf $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/inputrc ]]		&& cp -p /etc/inputrc $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/limits ]]		&& cp -p /etc/limits $uml_root/etc
[[ -e /etc/localtime ]]		&& cp -d /etc/localtime $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/login.defs ]]	&& cp -p /etc/login.defs $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/nsswitch.conf ]]	&& cp -p /etc/nsswitch.conf $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/profile ]]		&& cp -p /etc/profile $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/protocols ]]		&& cp -p /etc/protocols $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/resolv.conf ]]	&& cp -p /etc/resolv.conf $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/services ]]		&& cp -p /etc/services $uml_root/etc
[[ -f /etc/syslog.conf ]]	&& cp -p /etc/syslog.conf $uml_root/etc

# instruct about login
echo "
You can log into $uml_hostname with one of your normal accounts or root.
The passwords are the same as on $(hostname).
" > $uml_root/etc/issue

# Get passwd and shadow so we can login with the same accounts as the host
cp -p /etc/passwd /etc/shadow /etc/group $uml_root/etc

# basic fstab
/dev/bd0	/		reiserfs	defaults	0 0
proc		/proc		proc		defaults	0 0
none		/dev/pts	devpts		defaults	0 0

# append hostfs to fstab if desired
if	[[ $hostfs == true ]]
then	cat<<-!>>$uml_root/etc/fstab
	none		/mnt/$host	hostfs		defaults	0 0
	none		/mnt/$host/usr/src	hostfs		/usr/src	0 0
	mkdir -p $uml_root/mnt/$host/usr/src

# inittab for uml
cat <<!>$uml_root/etc/inittab
# user-mode-linux inittab
ca:12345:ctrlaltdel:/sbin/shutdown -t1 -a -r now
c1:23:respawn:/sbin/agetty console 38400 linux

# startup/rc scripts
mkdir $uml_root/etc/rc.d

# Create rc.sysinit for uml.
# begin of /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

# Mount root device ro.
/bin/mount -n -o remount,ro /

# Mount swap partitions.
/sbin/swapon -a

# Remount root device rw.
/bin/mount -n -v -o remount,rw /

echo "" > /etc/mtab
/bin/mount -f -o remount,rw /

# Mount special filesystems
/bin/mount /proc
/bin/mount /dev/pts

# Initialize loopback network interface.
/sbin/ifconfig lo

# Set hostname.
/bin/hostname -v $uml_hostname

# Recreate the utmp file so w/who are correct.
rm -f /var/run/utmp
touch /var/run/utmp
chmod 0644 /var/run/utmp

# end of /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

# Create rc.0 for uml.
cat <<!>$uml_root/etc/rc.d/rc.0
# /etc/rc.d/rc.0
# Sending TERM signal to all processes.
/sbin/killall5 -15

# Sending KILL signal to all processes.
/sbin/killall5 -9

# Unmounting swap partitions.
/sbin/swapoff -a

# put marker in messages
case "\$0" in
          /sbin/reboot -w
          /sbin/halt -w


# Remount root filesystem ro.
/bin/mount -n -o remount,ro /

# Unmount other filesystems
/bin/umount -a

case "\$0" in
          /sbin/reboot -d -f -i
          /sbin/halt -d -f -p
# end of /etc/rc.d/rc.0
# end of here doc for /etc/rc.d/rc.0

# Create rc.1 for uml.
# /etc/rc.d/rc.1

# Send TERM signal to all processes.
/sbin/killall5 -15

# Send KILL signal to all processes.
/sbin/killall5 -9

# Disable eth0.
/sbin/ifconfig eth0 down

# end of /etc/rc.d/rc.1
# end of here document for /etc/rc.d/rc.1

# Create rc.2 for uml
# /etc/rc.d/rc.2

echo "Cleaning /tmp"
/bin/rm -rf /tmp
/bin/mkdir --mode=1777 /tmp

# don't put MARK in syslog every 20 minutes
/usr/sbin/syslogd -m0

# -c set console log level to 3 (warning?)
# -x Omits EIP translation and therefore doesn't read the System.map file.
#    Suggestion from Keith Owens on lkml on 10/31/2001.
#/usr/sbin/klogd -c3 -x -k /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
/usr/sbin/klogd -c3 -x

# load default keymap
#/bin/loadkeys -d

# Initialize uml eth0.
/sbin/ifconfig eth0 $uml_tun_ip up
/sbin/route add default gw $host_tun_ip

# Starting inetd server.
if	[[ -r /etc/inetd.conf ]] && [[ -x /usr/sbin/inetd ]]
then	/usr/sbin/inetd

# Mount other filesystems
/bin/mount -a
# end of /etc/rc.d/rc.1

# links for rc scripts
cd $uml_root/etc/rc.d
ln -s rc.2 rc.3
ln -s rc.2 rc.4
ln -s rc.2 rc.5
ln -s rc.0 rc.6

# permissions for rc scripts
cd $uml_root/etc/rc.d
chmod 754 rc.[0-2]
chmod 754 rc.sysinit

# done with /etc
echo "done"

# install modules from uml kernel
echo -en "Installing kernel modules\t\t"
cd $uml_dest/linux
make $silent_make modules_install INSTALL_MOD_PATH=$uml_root ARCH=um
echo "done"

# basic .bash_profile for root.
cd $uml_root/root
export PATH="\$PATH:/sbin:/usr/sbin"
set -o vi
alias l="ls -l"

cd /
echo "sync"
echo "umounting $uml_root"
umount $uml_root
echo "detaching $loop"
losetup -d $loop 

if	! grep -q $user /etc/passwd
then	echo "change user=$user at the top of $0 to whatever your login name is"
else	chown $user:root $uml_dest/linux/$root_fs

# load tun driver on host system - only necessar.
if	[[ -f /lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/net/tun.o ]] && ! modprobe tun
then	insmod tun

cd $uml_dest/linux
# boot uml if user was specified in script.
if	[[ $user != "" ]]
then	# boot up 
	echo -e "\nBooting uml!\n"
	su - $user -c "cd $uml_dest/linux&&./linux rootfs=$root_fs eth0=tuntap,,,$host_tun_ip umid=$uml_hostname"
else	echo "Your uml $root_fs is in $uml_dest"
	echo "boot uml as a non-root user with a command like:"
	echo "cd $uml_dest/linux && ./linux rootfs=$root_fs eth0=tuntap,,,$host_tun_ip umid=$uml_hostname"
# use the line below for no networking, and no init.  It may be useful
# for troubleshooting.
#su - $user -c "cd $uml_dest/linux&&./linux rootfs=$root_fs init=/bin/bash"
# end of build_root_fs

Comments on commands to build root_fs
Create a 200 megabyte sparse file called root_fs and associate it with
/dev/loop0.  Copy devices, /lib, /sbin, /bin, a few things from /etc, and
/usr/bin into the loopback root filesystem.  If devel=true is set in
build_rootfs, part of /usr/bin, /usr/lib/gcc-lib and /usr/include will
be copied too.  Create bsd style init scripts.

If you defined user=somebody, build_rootfs will boot UML.  You can always
boot UML after building root_fs with a command like:

Switch back to a non-priviledged user and run the kernel:

	./linux init=/bin/bash


	./linux rootfs=root_fs eth0=ethertap,tap0,,$uml_ip_address umid=$LOGNAME

Logging in
Login to UML as root with your usual root password.  To the host
filesystem, you will still be a non-priviledged user.  You will
be root in the UML environment.  Take a look around.  If the terminal
doesn't format properly, try the reset(1) command.  When you
are done, type /sbin/halt to kill UML.  If you can't shutdown
the UML for some reason, just kill the "linux" processes from UML.

Using mconsole
You can do some UML management with uml_mconsole.  The "management"
device is printed in the boot message, and it changes from boot to boot.
You can make the socket used my mconsole stay the same by adding
umid=something to the UML command line.  In this example, the
socket will by /tmp/uml/something/mconsole.
	 uml_mconsole /tmp/uml/something/mconsole
	 (something) version
	 OK Linux uml 2.4.16-2um #1 Tue Dec 11 21:15:47 EST 2001 i686

Taking down UML
sync		# halt in mconsole doesn't sync the filesystem.
/sbin/halt	# from within UML
kuml		# alias mentioned earlier if UML processes are still out there.

Taking down loopback filesystem if something went wrong
umount /mnt/uml
losetup -d /dev/loop0

Xterm insane after shutdown
If your X terminal goes haywire, after killing UML, try "reset;reset;clear".

Panic when you have root_fs
If you run UML as non-root, the user running UML must own root_fs.  
chown the root_fs file, (not everything inside root_fs).

Error building kernel
  gcc -Wl,-T,/usr/src/uml/linux/arch/um/link.ld  -o linux -static \
        /usr/src/uml/linux/arch/um/main.o vmlinux.o -L/usr/lib
	vmlinux.o: In function `linux_main':
	/usr/src/uml/linux/arch/um/kernel/um_arch.c:211: undefined reference
	to `remap_profiling_buffers'
	collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
	make: *** [linux] Error 1
  Somehow CONFIG_GPROF in .config is defined to 1.  make mrproper and try building
  the kernel again.  Read the build_uml script, there's a sed hack in there for this.

kernel BUG at page_alloc.c:112!
Similar to the previous error.  CONFIG_GPROF and CONFIG_GCOV are set.  Look at
the sed hack for the CONFIG in build_uml.  Here is what the error may look like:

hrandoz at rushmore:/usr/src/uml/linux$ ./linux
tracing thread pid = 17848
Linux version 2.4.15-3um (hrandoz at rushmore) (gcc version 2.95.3 20010315 (release)) #1 Sun Dec 2 13:19:51 EST 2001
On node 0 totalpages: 8192
zone(0): 0 pages.
zone(1): 8192 pages.
zone(2): 0 pages.
Kernel command line: root=/dev/ubd0
Calibrating delay loop... 25.47 BogoMIPS
kernel BUG at page_alloc.c:112!

ifconfig error
tuntap_open_tramp failed during ifconfig.  The /usr/include/linux/if_tun.h has changed 
a lot since you installed glibc.  Copy /usr/src/linux/include/if_tun.h to 
/usr/include/linux/if_tun.h and rebuild the UML kernel.

ioctl: LOOP_SET_FD: Device or resource busy
This may show up if build_rootfs bombed for some reason.  It means /dev/loop0 is
still mounted.  umount /mnt/uml && losetup -d /dev/loop0 and re-run build_rootfs.
Another possiblitity is that you /dev/loop0 device isn't a block device.

make does not return when compiling with UML
I had to reconfigure/compile make on the host system without optimization
and these configure options:

	./configure --prefix=/usr --disable-job-server 

I've had better luck compiling in UML with CFLAGS and CPPFLAGS unset.

Other helpful docs
HOWTO: Loopback Encrypted Filesystem HOWTO  (info about building a 
	filesystem on a loopback device)
HOWTO: The Linux Bootdisk HOWTO

IRC Resources
irc.openprojects.org #kernelnewbies and #uml

Mailing lists
user-mode-linux-user at lists.sourceforge.net

#(@) $Id: uml.txt,v 1.8 2001/12/28 11:33:06 hrandoz Exp $

Good Luck!

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