Updated xfree86+freetype hint, part deux

Dagmar d'Surreal no.spam at allowed.here
Tue Jan 7 15:16:00 PST 2003

*sigh* Of course the moment I finally decide to turn the document loose
it runs out and gets itself all banged up and covered in bugs.

Much thanks to the sharp eyes of Mark Hymers (missing "./" before
configure) and Seth Klein (whoops, X420src-1 untarred twice) for
spotting typos in what I sent out such a short while ago.

...and I really can't say much about the invocations of awk I removed
except that I probably wasn't sober when I wrote the shell script that I
copied them out of.  ;)
-------------- next part --------------
TITLE:		XFree86 4.2.1, the _friendly_ way.

LFS VERSION:	3.x or newer

AUTHOR:		Dagmar d'Surreal

EMAIL ADDRESS:	Thou shalt not spam. <`echo qntzne at fcrnxrnfl.arg | rot13`>

SYNOPSIS:	This hint demonstrates an extremely elegant method for
		installing XFree86 4.2.1 that minimizes the chance of
                library conflicts.



  2002 Dec 15 - Updated to be current with XFree86 4.2.1
                Updated to include shm patch
                Added download URLs for all packages
                Added a walkthru for using xf86config 

  2003 Jan 7  - Altered explanation of patent-violating option for Freetype
		Minor changes to patch listings for XFree86		
		Removed an unneeded setting from sample host.def
		Further fine-tuning of the xf86config walkthru
              - Fixed embarrassing typos spotted by honorable messirs Mark
                Hymers and Seth W. Klein.
		Removed two gratuitious (and needless) uses of awk.

Some Caveats

Note...  Do not, I repeat, do _not_ play games with the PKG_CPU and PKG_ARCH
variables in the example shell scripts.  I would really recommend you stick
with i386 for PKG_ARCH, but try to get PKG_CPU as close to your exact CPU
type as possible, which is going to be something like i386, i486, i586, i686,
k6, athlon, etc.  If you don't know what you should use, i486 and i586
are really good catch-alls.  Using the commented out examples is probably also
very safe.  (You could also read the info pages for gcc to learn what all the
available targets are...)

There are two packages which you must install _before_ you build XFree86 4.2.1
and they would be zlib 1.1.4 (or newer) and FreeType2 2.1.3 (or newer).
Neither of these are dependent on anything in XFree86 or on each other so this
can be easily done on a clean build with no X at all.  You should also
_obliterate_ any pre-existing versions of zlib and FreeType2 which might be
living in /usr/local, /opt, or even your soon-to-be-destroyed /usr/X11R6
directories.  Building these two libraries independently of XFree86, and
instructing XFree86 to use our versions of the libraries instead of building
it's own stale/dated versions eliminates problems caused by having multiple
versions of those packages installed at once, and allows us to capitalize on
the benefits of using shared libraries in the first place.

Obtaining zlib Source

   md5sum = ea16358be41384870acbdc372f9db152

Get the source code for zlib from the location above, and be sure to check the
MD5 sum before you do anything with the source.  If you were previously using
an older version of zlib, you may need to recompile a lot of applications due
to a security issue.  See http://www.gzip.org/zlib/advisory-2002-03-11.txt for
more details.

Building zlib

The short of this is that you need to install zlib in a manner which includes
the _shared_ (libz.so) version of the library.  Here is a quick example method
for doing it, with optimizations.  (I use PKG_CPU=i686 personally, because
I've got a celery and i'm lazy.)

Note: the normal LFS way of building zlib should work quite well for this, but
just in case you missed it (*ahem*) here's a brief run-down...


#PKG_ARCH=`uname -m`

./configure --prefix=/usr --shared && 
make && 
make test && 
make install

The CFLAGS argument given above isn't nearly as fancy as it appears to be.
The first three arguments inside it are the same as what the package normally
uses.  It is, IMHO, not worth bothering trying to guess at "better" flags
for optimization, since the people who develop zlib have already spent a great
deal of time looking at the resulting assembly code to determine if any
further speedups are possible.

Obtaining Freetype2 Sources

   md5sum = 09775a4111e066f782866d8a57d8481b

Get the source tarball for Freetype2 and verify it's md5sum, as usual.  Then
uncompress the tarball into a working directory somewhere.  

Building Freetype2

The next step is to install FreeType2, and if you don't mind violating a
patent in the name of a good-looking desktop, you can make a quick change to
include/freetype/config/ftoption.h inside the freetype2 source package
before you build it.  Just remove the comment markers from around the line
that says:


If you decide not to do this, then your freetype library won't do anything
about TrueType glyphs that are "hinted", meaning you'll always see the
vector-drawn letters, even if the font contains a special set of partially
rasterized glyphs for the font size you are using.  If this makes no sense to
you, then leave it alone, as it can't cause you any problems.

You can use the following shell script below to compile and install the
Freetype2 library:


# Really sane defaults
#PKG_ARCH=`uname -m`

CFLAGS="$PKG_OPT -march=$PKG_ARCH -mcpu=$PKG_CPU" \
./configure --prefix=/usr && 
make && 
make install &&

There are still a few packages out there that will do something very broken
and explicitly search /usr/X11R6/include for the FreeType2 headers,
specifically because their maintainers have apparently grown tired of seeing
the terrible things that happen when more than one version of FreeType2 is
installed.  Eventually these guys will get around to realizing that it's less
work to merely demand people fix their installations of Freetype2 than it is
to do something almost as broken to get around the problem.  Brokenness is
always bad, especially in this case as it requires us to put symlinks under
/usr/X11R6 pointing to the Freetype2 files in /usr.  Do so with the following
shell script _after_ you have installed the XFree86 binaries:


cd /usr/X11R6/lib
ln -s ../../lib/libfreetype.* .
mkdir -p /usr/X11R6/include
cd /usr/X11R6/include
ln -s ../../include/freetype2 .
ln -s ../../include/ft2build.h .

(This means you can now merrily rm -rf /usr/X11R6 to prepare for the next
step--installing XFree86s 4.2.1, instead of having to take partial measures
to remove XFree86 without destroying these symlinks.)

Before you install XFree86

I'd like to suggest at this point that you go ahead and make backups of your
current XFree86 configuration and any custom app-defaults files you may have
had, since you may be able to recycle these between minor revisions and
avoid some extra hassle of configuring things again.  To avoid problems with
having stale versions of libraries and whatnot lying around, I also recommend
that you remove your old XFree86 installation entirely before continuing on.
This means deleting /etc/X11, /var/X11, and /usr/X11R6, and then probably
running ldconfig to clear the stale things out of the linker cache.

Obtaining XFree86 Source

Note: XFree86 source code is pretty large (around 50Mb compressed), so if you
know of a mirror that has these files closer to you, it would behoove you to
use it.  You should also be aware that not all three tarballs are necessarily
needed to build XFree86, although the third one contains documentation in a
number of unusual formats.  Obtain at least the first two tarballs listed and
all three of the patches.

Source Tarballs:
   md5sum = ad43a8e9e39703322005cd6f7145b77f
   md5sum = dae33268a9f2735b9678a81fb23e8d3e
   md5sum = 560899e175a02ab592185b69756f539e

Required Patches:
   md5sum = 38adc94a4953a6b29e8619c25dda4887
   md5sum = 18eb56110c7f66895111bd9f3513b54e

Optional Patch:
   md5sum = f48429288375f68fdaa3ef010f641e75

The md5 values are provided here only as a basic means of determining that
the tarballs weren't damaged during the transfer.  These same md5 values are
also given in a separate file on the XFree86 site, and should any of them
suddenly not match, you should proceed with caution.  There are currently
*no* tarballs of 4.2.1, and it doesn't appear that the XFree86 devel team
are going to make any available, so don't be suprised that you can't find
any.  You will need the 4.2.0 source and patches, as listed above.  If you
are using a version of bison newer than 1.35 (which is the case for LFS 4.0
users) you will need the last patch listed which was very thoughtfully
provided by Jim Gifford.  *Everyone* should use the shm security patch.

Preparing the XFree86 Source

You will need quite a lot of disk space available to compile XFree86 4.2.1.
Use a partition with at _least_ 300-400Mb of space available to compile in,
and pick (or create) a work directory.  Untar at least the first two tarballs
(X420src-1.tgz and X420src-2.tgz, the third as well if you want the full set
documentation installed on the system) and then apply the three patches to the
source tree in the order listed to bring it entirely up to date.  You may
wish to check ftp://ftp.xfree86.org/pub/XFree86/4.2.1/fixes/ to see if there
are any more fixes which have been published since this document was written.

Building the Binaries
Now we move on to the real meat and potatoes of this operation.  Go ahead and
untar X420src-1.tgz and X420src-2.tgz (and the third one as well if you like)
someplace with about 300-400Mb of space free (for safety's sake).  Cd into
the xc/ directory and get ready for the _easy_ part.

Note, this is not a shell script, and YOU are expected to put the appropriate
values in place of PKG_ARCH and PKG_CPU. 

Create the file config/cf/host.def under the xc/ directory to tell XFree86's
build system that we want it to use the system-installed versions of zlib
and Freetype2 that we just built...

#define HasFreetype2 YES
#define BuildFreetype2Library NO
#define HasZlib YES

#define DefaultGcc2i386Opt -O2 -fno-strength-reduce -march=i386 -mcpu=i686

The last line is entirely optional, and really isn't all that different from
the default one XFree86 will use when left to it's own to decide.  I would 
strongly recommend that you not attempt to set numerous things in the
host.def file unless you are _absolutely_ _positively_ sure that you need to.
XFree86's build system is rather crude compared to other packages, but it
does manage to autodetect everything correctly in the vast majority of cases
(the incorrect minority being mainly esoteric non-x86 hardware).  

Once you've written the host.def file, the next step is to (in the xc/ 
directory) type the following commands, as given in the README...

make World >& world.log
make install >& install.log
make install.man &>> installman.log

The install.man can be skipped if you didn't uncompress the third source
tarball.  make World takes a _long_ time, so be patient and just tail the
world.log file in another window if you like.  On my machine, it will grow
until it reaches approximately 5,900Kb, and generally bores me to death while
it does it.

At this point, make sure that "/usr/X11R6/lib" appears in your /etc/ld.so.conf
file and then run ldconfig one last time.  You may now configure XFree86
normally, and/or install any third party drivers for your card that you need.
(...as is the case with users of nVidia cards, for example.) 

Final Notes

Some last tidbits... XFree86 4.2.x comes with a set of Bigelow & Holmes fonts
which live under /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TTF.  I wouldn't suggest adding any
other fonts to this directory, and don't worry about this directory not
appearing in the default XF86Config and XftCache files... everything seems to
be hard-coded to look there for truetype fonts whether it's been specified or
not.  Better to keep _your_ fonts in a directory you can explicitly specify so 
you can keep better track of them.  I use /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/TrueType.

Oh, and don't forget to consult the FHS to make sure you have all the symlinks
for your filesystem pointing to the right parts of XFree86, just in case
XFree86 didn't put them there already.

You can also probably go ahead and build Freetype 1.3.1 and ttmkfdir (which
are discussed elsewhere) now that you have XFree86 installed.  Between these
two versions you will have everything you need to satisfy the requirements of
literally every package that can make use of TrueType fonts.

There is a newer version of ttfmkdir available which compiles against
Freetype 2.x, but frankly, it's just as problematic to compile as the old
ttmkfdir, and it will be obsolete with XFree86 4.3.x which is less than a
month away, so we're just not going to bother with it.

Configuring XFree86

I swore that when I wrote this I wasn't going to get involved in the mess that
is configuring XFree86 since the majority of people who are having problems
always seem to be trying to do things with only one buttock (to put it
politely).  There *is* however, a reliable (the "easy" autoconfiguration some
people may recommend of `XFree86 -configure` does not always work properly, if
it fails, you will _need_ this method) way to configure XFree86, and it's the
one that's still pretty guaranteed to work with just a tiny bit of research
on the part of the user.  A walkthru for it is a _large_ amount of typing,
which is why it is formally beyond the scope of this document, but I'm
including a quick run-down anyway.  It is as follows:

  1. As root, run `xf86config`.  Hit enter at the first do-nothing prompt.

  2. At the prompt for the mouse, pick whatever is appropriate, or at least
    close to the correct value.

  3. If your mouse has three buttons on it (if your mouse has a wheel, and it
    clicks when you push down on it--most all do--then it's a third button)
    then you do not want Emulate3Buttons.  This is only for 2-button mice.

  4. For the mouse device location, enter /dev/input/mice if you have a USB
    mouse, /dev/psaux if you have a PS/2 mouse, or /dev/ttyS0 (or whatever)
    if you have a serial mouse.  We are _long_ past the point where it
    should be necessary to do weird things like running gpm in repeater mode.
    For anyone using LFS 3.3 or newer, just trust me and try it.

  5. The question about keyboards is deceptively simple to answer.  Most US
    people will say "3" if they have a "Windows" key, and "1" if they don't.
    Non-US people will be saying "4" or "2" for the same reasons.  Notebook
    people will REALLY want to pay attention here, but basically if nothing
    listed matches exactly what they have, they should go with one of the
    first four generic options depending on the presence of the "Windows" key.
    You *may* have to use Shift-PgUp as _many_ new keyboard types have been
    added to the list in 4.3.x.

  6. Now comes the part where non-US or i18n users should pay attention.  Pick
    the country your keyboard is localized for, not just the country you are
    in.  If you have a boring US keyboard, enter 1 no matter where you are.

  7. You should just hit enter for the default variant of your keyboard unless
    you already know of a specific other choice you should make.  When in
    doubt, just choose the defaults.   Overthinking gets people into trouble.

  8. If you have no idea what "group switcher" and such are, just say no
    and move on because you clearly do not need them.

  9. Now comes one of the two questions that will _punish you if you make an
    unintelligent guess.  The odds are that you _can_ guess, but be smart
    about it.  If you can find the correct and accurate answers from the web
    site of your monitor's manufacturer, _do so_.  If you don't know, and
    you intend to operate your monitor at 1024x768, you can probably enter 7
    and not worry about it.  If you intend to operate at 1280x1024, you can
    probably get away with 9 and not have it interlace the image.  If you
    intent to use something higher than 1280x1024, and you are _certain_
    your monitor can actually handle it, then you can probably pick the
    broadest setting shown and only worry about changing it if it doesn't
    work.  (More expensive monitors tend to be willing to discuss their
    options with the video card and make intelligent choicess for you.)

  10. The vertical sync range is the other place where guessing can really
    burn you.  LCD panels will likely be using a single, fixed value, which
    they can almost certainly communicate to XFree86 on their own, so whatever
    value you select will either be ignored, or in some cases you might need
    to just use 60.   The "safe" choice for monitors and LCD panels here would
    be answer #3, 50-100, but don't guess if you can easily find out the

  11. The next answer is just a text string.  Enter whatever you like to
    describe your monitor.  It won't affect things at all.

  12. This is the biggie.  You _do_ want to look at the card database unless
    you like pain.  Hit enter as many times as you need until the exact
    model of your video card appears, then pick that number.  If you intend
    to use a different driver later on, you can pick something "close" to 
    just to get through the massive list of cards.  If you already know
    which of X's drivers you need to use, 4.3.x has a generic entry for
    each driver at the top of the list so you don't _have_ to wade through
    the entire thing if you don't want to.

  13. The question about the amount of memory your card has is merely used
    by xf86config to decide what modes to offer you as possible.  It will
    not affect the configuration file because it will only store the value
    you enter here as a comment.  If you don't know whether or not your
    card has 16Mb or 64Mb of RAM, just enter 16384K and be done with it.
    This is one of the things that XFree86 has become really reliable about
    detecting properly on it's own.

  14. Yet another free-form string... Describe your video card any way you
    like, so long as you don't enter the exact same string as you used to
    describe your monitor.

  15. This menu will almost always require you reconfiguring things.  In
    each color depth, the _first_ value listed will be the default, so
    if you want 1024x768 as the default for 16bpp, enter 2 to change
    those values, and then enter "4" as the first number ("432" is a good
    example).  Keep changing until you have things the way you like them
    and remember that the largest size for each color depth will control the
    "virtual" desktop size, which may annoy you.

    Note: The only time I ever change resolution or color-depth is when 
    I'm doing something with SDL that changes them both anyway, so I
    only bother to enter one resolution per color depth.  You might wish
    to do the same.

  16. Almost done!  Pick your default color depth.

  17. Do whatever you like about letting it write out the config you have
    just created, just be sure that if you use /etc/X11/XF86Config that
    you don't have a stale /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 file lying in wait.

  18. You should now have a basic, working X configuration.  Provided nothing
    went terribly wrong, you should be able to run `startx` and be presented
    with an extremely primitive window manager called twm.  I recommend
    Blackbox as a quick replacement (no dependencies other than X) for this
    before your eyes begin to bleed.

One last clue... If you have a mouse wheel, the only thing you need to do
to get it working with XFree86 now is to add two lines for the ZAxisMapping
and number of buttons to the mouse section so that it looks like this:

    Identifier  "Mouse1"
    Driver      "mouse"
    Option "Protocol"    "IMPS/2"
    Option "Device"      "/dev/psaux"
    Option "ZAxisMapping"       "4 5"
    Option "Buttons"            "5"

I'd like to think that the mouse wheel information will be something that
xf86config in 4.3.0 will ask about, but considering that it took them years
to add the question for DefaultColorDepth, and it has yet to manifest in pre-releases, so I doubt it.


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