Richard A Downing FBCS richard at 109bean.org.uk
Mon Jan 19 01:22:29 PST 2004

Herewith corrected LFS-References Text hint with all the missing sections
included as 'not applicable'.  It passes checkHint.

Richard A Downing FBCS  http://www.109bean.org.uk
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TITLE:		 LFS Package Reference
LFS VERSION: 5.0 on.
AUTHOR:		 Richard A Downing FBCS <geek109ZZZhotmailZZZcom>
SYNOPSIS:    On-line documentation and training for all the LFS packages.
LICENSE:	 Free Document License
DATE: 		 2004-01-15
DESCRIPTION: This is an index to all the packages that make up Linux from
   			 Scratch (LFS).


   You will find this text version of this document very hard to use.  I
   have published it in this way only because the LFS Hints standard
   says 'text only'.  You should always use the latest version on-line at:
   Just in case you insist on using this version, note that the numbers
   like this [1] refer to the list of URLs in the appendix.
   This text document was produced by running 'lynx -dump' on the website
   version on 2004-01-11.

   There will probably never be any further revisions of this text version.

What is this Document?

   This is an index to all the packages that make up [5]Linux from
   Scratch (LFS). Under each package we list, in this order:
    1. The homepage for the package, or the [6]freshmeat.net page if
       there isn't a homepage we know about.
    2. The URL of the manual, possibly the man page, but something to let
       you learn what the package does and how to use it. There are a few
       packages where we either have nothing yet to tell you here, or the
       homepage is the best reference for manuals that we know.
    3. Optionally, the URL's of interesting and informative material that
       may help you understand the package better, use it for some common
       task, or be otherwise educational.

Why would I want to use this material?

   You might ask if there is any value in this list: "doesn't the LFS
   book contain all I need to build LFS?"

   We'll yes it does, but only just sufficient information, and a little
   extra educational material so that you can troubleshoot as you
   proceed. But what if you want to use your new LFS system? Don't you
   want to know what you have just built?

   Here is a starting place to understand the software you have already
   installed, but have so far only used to build the system itself.

How is the document maintained, and how can I help?

   When there is a new major release of LFS we review this document to
   check if there are any new packages we need to include, or perhaps
   some we don't need any more. Apart from that the content relies on
   people like you sending suggestions to the document maintainer.

   If you find a useful on-line document about one of the LFS packages,
   just [7]send an email to the maintainer with:
    1. The URL of the material.
    2. A short explanation of why you think it should be included here.

   You can also email to say you found something here to be less useful
   than you hoped, but we may disagree!

   You may feel that your current expertise is too lowly to contribute,
   but you are wrong; it is only by using the experiences of people while
   they are learning that we can find out which are the best learning
   tools. Please take the time to give us some feedback if you can.

   We are also interested in the views of people whose first language is
   not English. However, because we only speak English fluently, it's
   hard for us to maintain lists of good references for other languages.
   If you can do that for your language we will happily provide a link to
   your document.

The Package Index


   Autoconf is an extensible package of m4 macros that produce shell
   scripts to automatically configure software source code packages.

   The ./configure scripts that you run to start the build of almost
   every source package was built by Autoconf. If you ever want to write
   your own OpenSource package, or build one from CVS, you need to be
   able to use Autoconf.

   [8]Autoconf homepage

   [9]Autoconf manual

   [10]GNU Autoconf, AutoMake and Libtool. a printed and on-line book.
   Universally known as The Goat Book

   [11]Learning Autoconf and Automake a tutorial.


   Automake is a tool for automatically generating `Makefile.in' files
   compliant with the GNU Coding Standards.

   Automake is the second part of the GNU auto-tools. If you need
   Autoconf, then you need Automake too.

   [12]Automake homepage

   [13]Automake manual

   Check-out the [14]Autoconf section for other refrerences


   Bash is the GNU Project's Bourne Again SHell, a complete
   implementation of the POSIX.2 shell specification with interactive
   command line editing, job control on architectures that support it,
   csh-like features such as history substitution and brace expansion,
   and a slew of other features.

   The effective use of your shell is the single most important skill
   that you need to make use of LFS. If and until you build a graphical
   environment, such as XFree86, you will be interacting with Linux
   through the shell. The shell we built for LFS is BASH.

   [15]Bash homepage

   [16]GNU Bash Reference Manual (on-line)

   [17]GNU Bash Reference Manual (for paper orders, and PDF download)

   [18]The Advanced Bash Scripting Guide

   [19]Bash Programming - Introduction HOWTO

   [20]Working more productively with BASH 2.x

   [21]Learning the Bash Shell, 2nd Edition, a recommended paper book.


   The GNU Binutils are a collection of binary tools.

   These are useful tools to manipulate and interogate object libraries
   and programs. If you ask difficult questions on LFS-Support, you may
   be asked to use these tools, here's where you find out what they do.

   [22]Binutils homepage

   [23]Manual index for the constituent programs of binutils


   Bison is a general-purpose parser generator that converts a grammar
   description for an LALR context-free grammar into a C program to parse
   that grammar.

   When UNIX was young, many people attempted to write software to
   generate compilers automatically from a definition of the language
   that they were intended to compile. One such attempt was called: Yet
   Another Compiler-Compiler, or YACC for short. Bison is a modern yacc.
   (Joke Hint: Both are ungulates, only one is Tibetan)

   You can use a LALR grammar to describe many computer languages, and
   then use bison to parse them.

   [24]Bison homepage

   [25]Bison reference manual

   [26]The Lex and Yacc Page helps put these tools into context.

   [27]lex & yacc, 2nd Edition a paper book that covers Bison.


   bzip2 is a freely available, patent free, high-quality data

   There are two formats for compressed files commonly used in the UNIX
   world, Gzip and Bzip2. LFS builds both packages. Bzip2 is generally
   slower tha gzip, but compresses more.

   [28]Bzip2 homepage

   [29]Bzip2 reference manual

   [30]The Bzip2 HOWTO


   The GNU Core Utilities are the basic file, shell and text manipulation
   utilities of the GNU operating system.

   Early versions of LFS used three packages, fileutils, shellutils, and
   textutils. but these have now been combined into a single package to
   provide all the core utilities that a POSIX operating system must
   provide. Here are all the little utilities to manipulate files in your

   [31]Coreutils homepage

   [32]Coreutils reference manual


   DejaGnu is a framework for testing other programs.

   LFS uses dejagnu to test that the toolchain (binutils, gcc and glibc)
   have been successfuly built and installed. Once LFS has been completed
   and the /tools directory has been deleted, you won't have dejagnu on
   your system anymore, so if you want it, you should re-install it.

   [33]Dejagnu homepage

   [34]The GNU Testing Framework Manual


   You can use the diff command to show differences between two files, or
   each corresponding file in two directories.

   All the patches supplied as part of LFS were created using diff, it's
   an important tool.

   [35]Diffutils homepage

   [36]Comparing and Merging Files with GNU diff and patch, an on-line

   [37]Comparing and Merging Files with GNU diff and patch, a book in
   paper or PDF format


   E2fsprogs provides the filesystem utilities for use with the ext2
   filesystem. It also supports the ext3 filesystem with journaling

   There does not appear to be an on-line manual for e2fsprogs, if you
   know of one, email a URL.

   [38]E2fsprogs homepage


   GNU ed is a line-oriented text editor. It's just about as simple as an
   editor can be, yet it's very useful in scripts. You can learn enough
   of it in a few minutes.

   [39]Ed homepage

   [40]A reference manual


   Expect is a tool for automating interactive applications such as
   telnet, ftp, passwd, fsck, rlogin, tip, etc.

   Once LFS has been completed and the /tools directory has been deleted,
   you won't have expect on your system anymore, so if you want it, you
   should re-install it.

   [41]Expect homepage

   [42]An article about using expect in scripts.

   [43]Another article about using expect.


   File attempts to classify files depending on their contents and prints
   a description if a match is found.

   [44]File freshmeat page

   [45]An on-line man page for file

   [46]Some information about files


   The GNU Find Utilities are the basic directory searching utilities of
   the GNU operating system.

   [47]Findutils homepage

   [48]Finding Files, the on-line Manual

   [49]A Very Valuable Find, an on-line article


   Flex is a fast lexical analyser generator.

   Back when the world was young and UNIX had just been invented, sad
   people wanted to analyse texts, so they wrote Lex, a lexical analyser.
   Flex is a compatible, and faster, rewrite of Lex.

   [50]Flex homepage

   [51]Flex reference Manual

   Checkout the other references under [52]Bison too.


   Gawk is an implementation of the awk utility. The awk utility
   interprets a special-purpose programming language that makes it
   possible to handle simple data-reformatting jobs with just a few lines
   of code.

   When it was invented Awk was one of the seminal computer programs - it
   really did change the world. Even if you give up on it's complicated
   syntax, you should still be aware of it. Learning to be fluent in Awk
   is a little like a European learning Japanese. Wakarimasu ka?

   I give you lots of references, but awk needs lots of study.

   [53]Gawk homepage

   [54]The GNU Awk User's Guide

   [55]Getting started with awk

   [56]How to get things done with awk ?

   [57]An Awk Tutorial

   [58]The AWK Programming Language, the book on awk, by awk's inventors

   [59]Effective awk Programming, 3rd Edition, a paper book on awk

   [60]sed & awk, 2nd Edition, yet another book on awk, this time with
   sed, two for the price of one!


   gcc is the GNU Compiler Collection. There really is far too much that
   could be listed here that we limit ourselves to just the official
   sites. Program in C, C++, Objective C, Java or ADA, and you'll find
   out all about GCC.

   [61]Gcc homepage

   [62]The gcc 3.3.2 reference manual, for other versions navigate from
   the home page.


   Gettext is the GNU internationalization library. Packages that link to
   it properly can interface in many natural languages.

   [63]Gettext homepage

   [64]Gettext reference manual


   The GNU C library is used as the C library in the GNU system and most
   newer systems with the Linux kernel.

   It's important to realise that, because most utilities and other
   libraries are writen in C or C++, the C library underpins far more
   than just "programming in C". It's the most critical library on your

   [65]Glibc homepage

   [66]Glibc reference manual


   Grep searches one or more input files for lines containing a match to
   a specified pattern.

   [67]Grep homepage

   [68]Grep reference manual

   [69]A simple grep tutorial

   [70]Another grep tutorial

   [71]A tip about running grep with find


   Groff (GNU Troff) software is a typesetting package which reads plain
   text mixed with formatting commands and produces formatted output.

   The troff markup language is almost as old as UNIX.

   [72]groff homepage

   [73]A page of references, unfortunately mostly in postscript.

   [74]This is a link to the MOM documents on your own machine.


   GNU GRUB is a Multiboot boot loader.

   [75]Grub homepage

   [76]The Grub reference manual


   gzip (GNU zip) is a compression utility designed to be a replacement
   for compress.

   [77]Gzip2 homepage

   [78]Gzip2 reference manual


   Inetutils is a collection of common network programs.

   The best advice I can give on learning these is to read the man pages

   [79]Inetutils homepage


   The kbd package contains keytable files and keyboard utilities.

   [80]Kdb freshmeat page


   Less is a pager. A pager is a program that displays text files in

   [81]Less homepage


   This package contains the LFS bootscripts. There is no specific
   homepage, just the:

   [82]LFS website


   This package contains programs that don't warrant building their whole
   package just to get LFS running. It's maintained by the LFS team, so
   has no specific homepage, just the:

   [83]LFS website


   GNU libtool is a generic library support script. It is part of the GNU
   AutoTools, with Autoconf and Automake.

   [84]Libtool homepage

   [85]Libtool manual

   Please also see the [86]Autoconf entry.


   Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written from scratch by
   Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers
   across the Net.

   [87]Linux Kernel Project homepage

   [88]The Linux Documentation Project homepage is the source for
   documents on everything Linux.


   GNU m4 is an implementation of the traditional Unix macro processor.

   M4 is very important as the GNU Autotools use it. It has not changed
   for years and years, and may be the most stable UNIX package of all

   [89]M4 homepage

   [90]M4 reference manual


   Make is a tool which controls the generation of executables and other
   non-source files of a program from the program's source files.

   Once the ./configure script has done it's stuff, the rest of a
   standard package build is done by make. Anyone wishing to learn how to
   program should have an understanding of how make works.

   [91]Make homepage

   [92]Make reference manual


   MAKEDEV is a script to create the device nodes in /dev. It is LFS
   specific, and has no homepages except:

   [93]LFS Website


   The man page suite, including man, apropos, and whatis consists of
   programs that are used to read most of the documentation available on
   a Linux system.

   Type 'man man' at a shell prompt, it's the best manual you'll find,

   [94]On-line man page


   The manpages package contains a large collection of man pages for
   Linux covering programming APIs, file formats, protocols, etc.

   [95]Man-pages homepage


   The modutils package contains utilities that are intended to make a
   Linux-2.4.x modular kernel manageable for all users, administrators,
   and distribution maintainers.

   A note here for those of an adventurous nature - Linux-2.6 uses a
   different package, finding it I leave as an exercise for the reader.

   [96]Modutils freshmeat page


   The ncurses (new curses) library is a freeware emulation of System V
   Release 4.0 curses.

   When the early users of UNIX moved on from teletypewriters to vdus,
   they needed a library to make writing programs for vdus easy. Curses,
   whose name is an allusion to the cursor, was the result.

   [97]Ncurses homepage


   The net-tools package contains a collection of programs that form the
   base set of the NET-3 networking distribution for the Linux operating

   [98]Net-tools freshmeat page


   Patch takes a patch file containing a difference listing produced by
   the diff program and applies those differences to one or more original
   files, producing patched versions.

   [99]Patch homepage

   [100]Patch reference manual

   See also the entries under [101]diffutils


   Perl is a high-level, general-purpose programming language that makes
   easy things easy and hard things possible.

   [102]www.perl.org - The Home of Perl

   [103]www.perldoc.com - The Perl documentation site


   Procinfo is a package to allow you to get useful information from

   [104]Procinfo freshmeat page


   These utilities report what is running, who is logged in, how long the
   system has been running, and what is using up memory.

   [105]Procps homepage


   Miscellaneous proc FS tools: fuser, killall, pidof, and pstree.

   [106]Psmisc homepage


   Sed, the GNU Stream Editor, copies the named files (standard input
   default) to the standard output, edited according to a script of

   [107]Sed homepage

   [108]Sed reference manual

   [109]A sourceforge Sed site with lots of tutorial references

   [110]Another website with references and tips (a bit MSDOS oriented

   [111]sed & awk, 2nd Edition, a book on sed with awk, two for the price
   of one!


   The Shadow password file utilities package includes the programs
   necessary to convert traditional V7 UNIX password files to the SVR4
   shadow password format, and additional tools to maintain password and
   group files (that work with both shadow and non-shadow passwords).

   [112]Shadow homepage


   The sysklogd package implements two system log daemons.

   [113]Sysklogd freshmeat page


   Init is the parent of all processes. Its primary role is to create
   processes from a script stored in the file /etc/inittab.

   [114]Sysvinit freshmeat page


   The tar program provides the ability to create tar archives, as well
   as various other kinds of manipulation.

   [115]Tar homepage

   [116]Tar reference manual


   Tcl provides a portable scripting environment for Unix, Windows, and
   Macintosh that supports string processing and pattern matching, native
   file system access, shell-like control over other programs, TCP/IP
   networking, timers, and event-driven I/O.

   [117]The Tcl and Tk homepage


   Texinfo is a documentation system that uses a single source to produce
   both on-line information (info, HTML, XML, Docbook) and printed output
   (DVI, PDF).

   [118]Texinfo homepage

   [119]Texinfo reference manual


   Util-linux s a suite of essential utilities for any Linux system.

   [120]Util-linux homepage


   Vim is an almost fully-compatible version of the Unix editor Vi.

   [121]Vim homepage

   [122]Vimdoc, the Vim documentation resource

   [123]An on-line ebook for students of Vim


   zlib is designed to be a free, general-purpose, legally unencumbered,
   lossless data-compression library for use on virtually any computer
   hardware and operating system.

   [124]Zlib homepage

   ? Richard A Downing FBCS 2003, 2004

   Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
   under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
   any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
   Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A
   copy of the license can be found on the GNU Website by following this

   [126]Valid XHTML 1.1! 


   1. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/opensource.html
   2. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/index.html
   3. mailto:geek109 at hotmail.com?Subject=LFS-References
   4. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/LFS-references.html#license
   5. http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
   6. http://freshmeat.net/
   7. mailto:geek109 at hotmail.com?Subject=LFS-References
   8. http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf
   9. http://www.gnu.org/software/autoconf/manual/autoconf-2.57/html_chapter/autoconf.html
  10. http://sources.redhat.com/autobook/
  11. http://www.amath.washington.edu/~lf/tutorials/autoconf/
  12. http://www.gnu.org/software/automake
  13. http://www.gnu.org/software/automake/manual/html_node/index.html
  14. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/LFS-references.html#autoconf
  15. http://cnswww.cns.cwru.edu/~chet/bash/bashtop.html
  16. http://cnswww.cns.cwru.edu/~chet/bash/bashref.html
  17. http://www.network-theory.co.uk/bash/manual/
  18. http://www.tldp.org/LDP/abs/html/
  19. http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO.html
  20. http://www.caliban.org/bash/index.shtml
  21. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/bash2/?CMP=IL7015
  22. http://sources.redhat.com/binutils/
  23. http://sources.redhat.com/binutils/docs-2.12/binutils.info/index.html
  24. http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/bison.html
  25. http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/manual/html_node/index.html
  26. http://dinosaur.compilertools.net/
  27. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/lex/index.html
  28. http://sources.redhat.com/bzip2/
  29. ftp://sources.redhat.com/pub/bzip2/docs/manual_toc.html
  30. http://fetter.org/Bzip2-HOWTO/Bzip2-HOWTO.html
  31. http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/
  32. http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/manual/html_node/coreutils_toc.html
  33. http://www.gnu.org/software/dejagnu/
  34. http://www.gnu.org/software/dejagnu/manual/book1.html
  35. http://www.gnu.org/software/diffutils/
  36. http://www.gnu.org/software/diffutils/manual/html_node/index.html
  37. http://www.network-theory.co.uk/diff/manual/
  38. http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net/
  39. http://www.gnu.org/software/ed/ed.html
  40. http://www.sao.nrc.ca/imsb/rcsg/documents/basic/node151.html
  41. http://expect.nist.gov/
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  43. http://rootprompt.org/article.php3?article=5760
  44. http://freshmeat.net/projects/file/?topic_id=861
  45. http://www.computerhope.com/unix/ufile.htm
  46. http://www.tuxfiles.org/linuxhelp/aboutfiles.html
  47. http://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/
  48. http://www.gnu.org/software/findutils/manual/html_node/find_toc.html
  49. http://www.linux-mag.com/2002-09/power_01.html
  50. http://www.gnu.org/software/flex/flex.html
  51. http://www.gnu.org/software/flex/manual/html_node/flex_toc.html
  52. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/LFS-references.html#bison
  53. http://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/gawk.html
  54. http://www.gnu.org/software/gawk/manual/html_node/index.html
  55. http://www.cs.hmc.edu/tech_docs/qref/awk.html
  56. http://www.canberra.edu.au/~sam/whp/awk-guide.html
  57. http://www.vectorsite.net/tsawk.html
  58. http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/awkbook/
  59. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/awkprog3/
  60. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/sed2/
  61. http://gcc.gnu.org/
  62. http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.3.2/gcc/
  63. http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/
  64. http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/html_node/gettext_toc.html
  65. http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/
  66. http://www.gnu.org/software/libc/manual/html_node/index.html
  67. http://www.gnu.org/software/grep/grep.html
  68. http://www.gnu.org/software/grep/doc/grep.html
  69. http://unix.cms.gre.ac.uk/general/viewing.html#grep
  70. http://www.anybrowser.org/bbedit/grep.shtml
  71. http://www.oreillynet.com/cs/user/view/cs_msg/18273
  72. http://www.gnu.org/software/groff/groff.html
  73. http://www.kohala.com/start/troff/troff.html
  74. file://localhost/usr/share/doc/groff/1.19/html/momdoc/toc.html
  75. http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/grub.html
  76. http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/index.html
  77. http://www.gzip.org/
  78. http://www.gnu.org/software/gzip/manual/html_node/gzip_toc.html
  79. http://www.gnu.org/software/inetutils/inetutils.html
  80. http://freshmeat.net/projects/kbd/?topic_id=861
  81. http://www.greenwoodsoftware.com/less
  82. http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
  83. http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
  84. http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/
  85. http://www.gnu.org/software/libtool/manual.html
  86. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/LFS-references.html#autoconf
  87. http://kernel.org/
  88. http://tldp.org/
  89. http://www.seindal.dk/rene/gnu/whatis.htm
  90. http://www.seindal.dk/rene/gnu/man/m4_toc.html
  91. http://www.gnu.org/software/make/
  92. http://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/make_toc.html
  93. http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/
  94. http://www.linuxcommand.org/man_pages/man1.html
  95. http://www.win.tue.nl/~aeb/linux/man
  96. http://freshmeat.net/projects/modutils/?topic_id=861
  97. http://www.gnu.org/software/ncurses/ncurses.html
  98. http://freshmeat.net/projects/net-tools/?topic_id=150
  99. http://www.gnu.org/software/patch/patch.html
 100. http://www.linuxcommand.org/man_pages/patch1.html
 101. http://www.freewebs.com/109bean/LFS-references.html#diffutils
 102. http://www.perl.org/
 103. http://www.perldoc.com/perl5.8.0/pod/perl.html
 104. http://freshmeat.net/projects/procinfo/?topic_id=253%2C862
 105. http://procps.sourceforge.net/
 106. http://psmisc.sourceforge.net/
 107. http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/sed.html
 108. http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/manual/html_node/sed_toc.html
 109. http://sed.sourceforge.net/
 110. http://www.cornerstonemag.com/sed/
 111. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/sed2/
 112. http://shadow.pld.org.pl/
 113. http://freshmeat.net/projects/sysklogd/
 114. http://freshmeat.net/projects/sysvinit/?topic_id=136
 115. http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/
 116. http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/manual/html_node/tar_toc.html
 117. http://tcl.activestate.com/
 118. http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/
 119. http://www.gnu.org/software/texinfo/manual/texinfo/html_node/index.html
 120. http://freshmeat.net/projects/util-linux/?topic_id=861
 121. http://www.vim.org/
 122. http://vimdoc.sourceforge.net/
 123. http://www.newriders.com/books/opl/ebooks/0735710015.html
 124. http://www.gzip.org/zlib/
 125. http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.txt
 126. http://validator.w3.org/check/referer

  * 1st release as a text file.
  NOTE: only the on-line version is maintained actively.

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