uclibc hint

Robert Connolly robert at linuxfromscratch.org
Wed Nov 2 23:10:12 PST 2005


Hi. I made a hint for uclibc, so people can install uclibc without HLFS or 
buildroot. It covers two examples, either building a new LFS linked to 
uclibc, or installing to /ulib beside an existing system. Installing uClibc++ 
is also covered.

robert
-------------- next part --------------
AUTHOR: Robert Connolly <robert at linuxfromscratch.org>

DATE: 2005-11-03

LICENSE: Public Domain

SYNOPSIS: uClibc C/C++ library

DESCRIPTION:
The uClibc libraries are designed to be small, for embeded systems, while having
most of the features of Glibc so that most software will be able to use uClibc, even
Xorg and KDE. uClibc also features a menuconfig similar to the Linux kernel, so that
features can be configured to talior the library for your specific needs. uClibc is an
excelent choice for any small system, but can be used for desktops as well.

Also see:
http://www.uclibc.org/
http://cxx.uclibc.org/
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hlfs/view/unstable/uclibc/
http://busybox.net/
http://buildroot.uclibc.org/

PREREQUISITES: Sed version 4 (or higher)

HINT:

# This hint will show how to install uClibc either as part of an LFS build, or beside
# an existing system. If you choose to install to an existing system then you will
# simply need to change your CC and CXX environment variables to use it.

# This hint may be a bit hard to follow because it covers two installation types. Be
# sure to take your time, to make sure you follow the parts relevant to you. Plan on
# botching the first try (like any typical LFS build).

# Needed package(s):

# http://www.uclibc.org/downloads/uClibc-0.9.28.tar.bz2

# Locales (optional):

# http://www.uclibc.org/downloads/uClibc-locale-030818.tgz

# The uClibc C++ library (optional):

# http://cxx.uclibc.org/src/uClibc++-0.1.11.tbz2

# Needed patches:

# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/uClibc/uClibc-0.9.28-config-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/uClibc/\
#	uClibc-0.9.28-libc_stack_end-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/binutils/\
#	binutils-2.16.1-uClibc_conf-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_conf-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/gcc-3.4.4-no_fixincludes-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/gcc-3.4.4-specs_x86-1.patch

# For g++ (not uClibc++):
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/\
#	gcc-3.4.3-uClibc_libstdc++-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/gcc-3.4.3-uClibc_conf-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/gcc-3.4.3-uClibc_locale-1.patch

# To use the uClibc support for SSP (optional):
# Also see: http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/ssp.txt
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/linux-libc-headers/\
#	linux-libc-headers-2.6.11.2-pseudo_random-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/gcc/gcc-3.4.4-ssp-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/uClibc/\
#	uClibc-0.9.28-arc4random-2.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/linux/\
#	linux-2.6.11.12-pseudo_random-1.patch

# Additional patches:
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/sed/sed-4.1.4-uClibc-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/shadow/shadow-4.0.13-uClibc-1.patch
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/hlfs/svn/psmisc-21.6-rpmatch-1.patch

# Attention:
# Do not expect many package testsuites to pass.

# If you are installing to an existing system then add a uclibc user and a dedicated
# uclibc directory. After installation this user can be removed. If you are installing
# a new LFS then ignore this. If you want to install a i386 or i486 toolchain, then
# use "i386-pc-linux-uclibc" or "i486-pc-linux-uclibc". Compiling for i386 makes smaller
# programs.

groupadd uclibc &&
useradd -g uclibc -s /bin/bash -d /home/uclibc -m uclibc &&
install -d -o uclibc /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/

# If you are installing beside an existing system then you are probably planning to
# use the uClibc libraries on another system, like a floppy disk or cdrom. It's best
# to link to / instead of /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/lib, because the later is clumsy.
# To do this, without messing up our existing system, we will symlink
# /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/lib to /ulib. Header files, the compiler, and linker will
# be installed in /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc, but the compiler will link to /ulib. This
# will allow us to build and test packages linked to uClibc, without a chroot.

# I decided not to try symlinking /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0 to /lib
# so it does not conflict with my host system, which is also uClibc.

ln -s /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/lib /ulib

# If you are installing LFS-uClibc then su to user lfs and don't adjust the $PATH.
# if you are installing to an existing system, then su to user uclibc:

su - uclibc
export PATH=/usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/bin:$PATH

# We will use the $prefix variable in this hint. If you are installing to an existing
# system then it will point to /usr. We also set the ldso directory to /ulib:

export prefix=/usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc &&
export ldso_dir=/ulib

# If you are installing a new LFS system then the $prefix will be /tools, and the ldso
# directory will be /tools/lib:

export prefix=/tools &&
export ldso_dir=/tools/lib

# We will also use the $target variable. This is the same regardless of where you are
# installing to:

export target=i386-pc-linux-uclibc

# Now we start the installation.

### Chapter 5 ###

# First install the linux-libc-headers:

# If you plan to use SSP, apply this patch:

patch -Np1 -i ../linux-libc-headers-2.6.11.2-pseudo_random-1.patch

# Then install the kernel headers:

install -d ${prefix}/include &&
cp -R include/asm-i386 ${prefix}/include/asm &&
cp -R include/linux ${prefix}/include

# Secondly we install the uClibc headers:

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-config-1.patch &&
make KERNEL_SOURCE=${prefix} headers &&
rm include/{asm,asm-generic,linux} &&
make DEVEL_PREFIX=${prefix}/ install_dev

# Don't worry about the "lib/: No such file or directory" message.

# Thirdly, install the Binutils Cross Linker:

patch -Np1 -i ../binutils-2.16.1-uClibc_conf-1.patch &&
mkdir ../binutils-build &&
cd ../binutils-build &&
../binutils-2.16.1/configure --prefix=${prefix} \
	--disable-shared  --disable-nls --target=${target} &&
make &&
make install &&
make -C ld clean &&
make -C ld LIB_PATH=${ldso_dir}

# Do not remove the binutils-2.16.1/ and binutils-build/ directories yet.

# Fourthly, install the GCC Cross Compiler (C only):

# GCC will try to use ${prefix}/${target}/include because GCC is a cross compiler. Fix
# that with this command:

sed -e "s@\(^CROSS_SYSTEM_HEADER_DIR =\).*@\1 ${prefix}/include at g" \
	-i gcc/Makefile.in

# Add this patch so we can specify where our ld.so library will be:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-specs_x86-1.patch

# GCC will default to use ${prefix}/${target}/lib for the startfile prefix because GCC
# is a cross compiler here. Fix that with this command:

echo "
#undef STARTFILE_PREFIX_SPEC
#define STARTFILE_PREFIX_SPEC \"${prefix}/lib/\"" >> gcc/config/linux.h

# Build and install GCC:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_conf-1.patch &&
touch ${ldso_dir}/ld-uClibc.so.0 &&
mkdir ../gcc-build &&
cd ../gcc-build &&
../gcc-3.4.4/configure --prefix=${prefix} --target=${target} \
	--disable-nls --disable-shared --enable-languages=c \
	--with-dynamic-linker=${ldso_dir}/ld-uClibc.so.0 --with-nostdinc &&
make &&
make install

# Now install uClibc:

# To use SSP:

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-arc4random-2.patch

# If you want locales:

install -m444 ../uClibc-locale-030818.tgz extra/locale/

# Add a config file (with just enough enabled to be able to build any package):

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-config-1.patch

# This patch is needed to fix a bug in this version of uClibc. It is only needed in
# the first uClibc build (stage 1 of bootstrap):

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-libc_stack_end-1.patch

# Reset the installation paths:

sed -e "s at .*SHARED_LIB_LOADER_P.*@SHARED_LIB_LOADER_PREFIX=\"${prefix}/lib\"@g" \
	-i .config &&
sed -e "s at .*RUNTIME_PREFIX.*@RUNTIME_PREFIX=\"${prefix}\"@g" \
	-i .config &&
sed -e "s at .*DEVEL_PREFIX.*@DEVEL_PREFIX=\"${prefix}/\"@g" \
	-i .config &&
sed -e "s at .*KERNEL_SOURCE.*@KERNEL_SOURCE=\"${prefix}\"@g" -i .config

# Now you can run "make menuconfig". The defaults from the config patch will let
# you build almost anything. If you do not want locales you should disable:
# UCLIBC_HAS_LOCALE under "String and Stdio Support".
# If you do not want to use SSP, then disable:
# UCLIBC_HAS_SSP under "uClibc security related options".

# If you are installing beside an existing system, and you modified the config, you
# should save the .config file for later, because make menuconfig won't work without
# ncurses. If you're installing a new LFS, make menuconfig will work in chapter 6.

# Build uClibc:

make CROSS=${target}- all

# And install uClibc (after removing some symlinks):

rm include/{asm,asm-generic,linux} &&
make install

# uClibc does not supply a libintl.so. If you installed locales then you should install
# Gettext's libintl too:

cd gettext-runtime/ &&
env CC=${target}-gcc \
	./configure --prefix=${prefix} --with-included-gettext \
	--without-csharp --disable-libasprintf &&
make -C intl/ &&
make -C intl/ install

# Then make GCC link everything to libintl (this fixes bugs in several packages). To
# disable this linking on specific packages, use CFLAGS="-nointl":

sed -e 's/%{shared:-lc}/%{!nointl: -lintl} &/' \
	-i `${target}-gcc --print-file specs`

# Now adjust the toolchain:

install ld/ld-new ${prefix}/bin/${target}-ld 
ln -f ${prefix}/bin/${target}-ld ${prefix}/${target}/bin/ld

# And test it:

echo 'main(){}' | ${prefix}/bin/${target}-gcc -x c -
readelf -l a.out | grep ": ${prefix}"

# This should return:
# Requesting program interpreter: /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0]
# or
# Requesting program interpreter: /tools/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0]

# Now remove the binutils-2.16.1/ and binutils-build/ directories.

# If you are installing LFS-uclibc, then install TCL, Expect, and DejaGNU.

# Binutils Native Linker:

patch -Np1 -i ../binutils-2.16.1-uClibc_conf-1.patch &&
mkdir ../binutils-build &&
cd ../binutils-build &&
env CC=${target}-gcc \
../binutils-2.16.1/configure --prefix=${prefix} \
    --host=${target} --build=${target} --target=${target} \
    --enable-shared --with-lib-path=${ldso_dir} &&
make &&
make install &&
make -C ld clean &&
make -C ld LIB_PATH=/usr/lib:/lib

# If you're installing LFS-uClibc, then do not remove the binutils-2.16.1/ and
# binutils-build directories, until readjusting in chapter 6. If you're installing
# beside an existing system, then these directories can be removed.

# GCC Native Compiler (C and C++):

# To use SSP:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-ssp-1.patch &&
sed -e 's at gcc.gnu.org/bugs.html at bugs.linuxfromscratch.org/@' \
	-e 's/3.4.4/3.4.4 (ssp)/' -i gcc/version.c

# To link libintl to everything:

sed -e 's/%{shared:-lc}/%{!nointl: -lintl} &/' \
        -i gcc/config/linux.h

# Now patch, build, and install GCC:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_conf-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_libstdc++-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_locale-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-specs_x86-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-no_fixincludes-1.patch &&
mkdir ../gcc-build &&
cd ../gcc-build &&
env CC=${target}-gcc \
../gcc-3.4.4/configure --prefix=${prefix} \
	--host=${target} --build=${target} --target=${target} \
	--libexecdir=${ldso_dir} --with-local-prefix=${prefix} \
	--enable-shared --enable-threads=posix \
	--enable-__cxa_atexit --enable-languages=c,c++ \
	--disable-libstdcxx-pch --enable-clocale \
	--with-dynamic-linker=${ldso_dir}/ld-uClibc.so.0 --with-nostdinc \
	--enable-multilib=no &&
make &&
make install &&
ln -s gcc ${prefix}/bin/cc

# To enable SSP by default, and test it, see section 5.12.2 and 5.12.3 of:
# http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hlfs/view/unstable/uclibc/chapter05/gcc.html

# If you are building LFS-uclibc, finish building chapter 5 normally, starting after
# the second GCC build.

# If you have installed uClibc beside an existing system, then rebuild uClibc now so
# that it becomes bootstraped. The libc_stack_end patch shouldn't be needed anymore.

# To use SSP:

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-arc4random-2.patch

# To use locales:

install -m444 ../uClibc-locale-030818.tgz extra/locale/

# Add the config patch (or copy the one you saved before):

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-config-1.patch

# Reset the installation paths:

sed -e "s at .*SHARED_LIB_LOADER_P.*@SHARED_LIB_LOADER_PREFIX=\"${prefix}/lib\"@g" \
        -i .config &&
sed -e "s at .*RUNTIME_PREFIX.*@RUNTIME_PREFIX=\"${prefix}\"@g" \
        -i .config &&
sed -e "s at .*DEVEL_PREFIX.*@DEVEL_PREFIX=\"${prefix}/\"@g" \
        -i .config &&
sed -e "s at .*KERNEL_SOURCE.*@KERNEL_SOURCE=\"${prefix}\"@g" -i .config

# Make uClibc a little smaller and faster:

sed -e 's/^OPTIMIZATION:=.*$/& -fomit-frame-pointer/' -i Rules.mak

# The build and reinstall uClibc:

make CROSS=${target}- all &&
rm include/{asm,asm-generic,linux} &&
make install

# If you want ldconfig installed too:

make headers &&
make CC="gcc -Wl,--dynamic-linker,${ldso_dir}/ld-uClibc.so.0 ${ldso_dir}/libc.so.0" \
	-C utils &&
make -C utils install

# Then relocate ldconfig:

mv ${prefix}/sbin/ldconfig ${prefix}/bin &&
rmdir ${prefix}/sbin/

# And reinstall Gettext too (the uClibc reinstall removed the libintl.h header):

cd gettext-runtime/ &&
env CC=${target}-gcc \
        ./configure --prefix=${prefix} --with-included-gettext \
        --without-csharp --disable-libasprintf &&
make -C intl/ &&
make -C intl/ install

# If you're installing beside an existing system, you're almost finished. Skip the
# Chapter 6 section below, and start reading from "Installing uClibc++".

### Chapter 6 ###
(Installing a new LFS-uClibc system)

# Install Linux-libc-headers:

patch --no-backup-if-mismatch -Np1 -i \
	../linux-libc-headers-2.6.11.2-pseudo_random-1.patch &&
cp -R include/asm-i386 /usr/include/asm &&
cp -R include/linux /usr/include &&
chown -R root:root /usr/include/{asm,linux} &&
find /usr/include/{asm,linux} -type d -exec chmod 755 {} \; &&
find /usr/include/{asm,linux} -type f -exec chmod 644 {} \;

# Install Man-pages...

# Install uClibc:

# With SSP:

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-arc4random-2.patch &&
install -m644 libc/stdlib/man/arc4random.3 /usr/share/man/man3

# With locales:

install -m444 ../uClibc-locale-030818.tgz extra/locale/

# Patch the config file:

patch -Np1 -i ../uClibc-0.9.28-config-1.patch

# Run menuconfig if you want:

make menuconfig

# Fix the installation paths (this installs to /):

sed -e 's at .*SHARED_LIB_LOADER_PREFIX.*@SHARED_LIB_LOADER_PREFIX="/lib"@g' \
	-i .config &&
sed -e 's at .*RUNTIME_PREFIX.*@RUNTIME_PREFIX="/"@g' -i .config &&
sed -e 's at .*DEVEL_PREFIX.*@DEVEL_PREFIX="/usr/"@g' -i .config &&
sed -e 's at .*KERNEL_SOURCE.*@KERNEL_SOURCE="/usr"@g' -i .config

# Make uClibc a little smaller and faster:

sed -e 's/^OPTIMIZATION:=.*$/& -fomit-frame-pointer/' -i Rules.mak

# Then make and install uClibc:

make &&
rm include/{asm,asm-generic,linux} &&
make install &&
make headers &&
make CC="gcc -Wl,--dynamic-linker,/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0 /lib/libc.so.0" \
	-C utils &&
make -C utils install &&
echo "/usr/local/lib" > ld.so.conf.new &&
install -m644 ld.so.conf.new /etc/ld.so.conf

# Adjust your timezone:
# Also see: http://leaf.sourceforge.net/doc/guide/buci-tz.html#id25991

echo "EST5EDT" > TZ.new
install -m644 TZ.new /etc/TZ

# If you installed uClibc with locales support, install Gettext now:

cd gettext-runtime/
./configure --prefix=/usr --libdir=/lib --with-included-gettext \
	--disable-static --enable-relocatable --disable-rpath
make -C intl/ &&
make -C intl/ install &&
rm /lib/libintl.so &&
ln -sf ../../lib/libintl.so.3 /usr/lib/libintl.so

# Readjust the toolchain:

install ld/ld-new /tools/bin/ld &&
perl -pi -e 's: /tools/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0: /lib/ld-uClibc.so.0:g;' \
	-e 's@\*startfile_prefix_spec:\n@$_/usr/lib/@g;' \
	$(gcc --print-file specs)

# Test it:

echo 'main(){}' > dummy.c
cc dummy.c
readelf -l a.out | grep ': /lib'

# Install Binutils:

patch -Np1 -i ../binutils-2.16.1-uClibc_conf-1.patch &&
mkdir ../binutils-build &&
cd ../binutils-build &&
../binutils-2.16.1/configure --prefix=/usr --enable-shared \
	--host=i386-pc-linux-uclibc --build=i386-pc-linux-uclibc \
	--target=i386-pc-linux-uclibc &&
make tooldir=/usr &&
make tooldir=/usr install &&
install -m644 ../binutils-2.16.1/include/libiberty.h /usr/include

# Install GCC:

# To use SSP:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-ssp-1.patch &&
sed -e 's at gcc.gnu.org/bugs.html at bugs.linuxfromscratch.org/@' \
	-e 's/3.4.4/3.4.4 (ssp)/' -i gcc/version.c

# Then patch GCC:

patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_conf-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_libstdc++-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-uClibc_locale-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-specs_x86-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-no_fixincludes-1.patch &&
patch -Np1 -i ../gcc-3.4.4-linkonce-1.patch &&
sed -e 's/install_to_$(INSTALL_DEST) //' -i libiberty/Makefile.in &&
mkdir ../gcc-build &&
cd ../gcc-build &&
../gcc-3.4.4/configure --prefix=/usr --host=i386-pc-linux-uclibc \
	--build=i386-pc-linux-uclibc --target=i386-pc-linux-uclibc \
	--libexecdir=/usr/lib --enable-threads=posix \
	--enable-shared --enable-__cxa_atexit \
	--with-dynamic-linker=/lib/ld-uClibc.so.0 --enable-clocale \
	--enable-languages=c,c++ --enable-multilib=no &&
make &&
make install &&
ln -s ../usr/bin/cpp /lib &&
ln -s gcc /usr/bin/cc

# If you are using SSP, then rerun /tools/bin/hardened-specs.sh and redo the tests.

# Now the rest of Chapter 6 can be built normally, and/or install uClibc++ now.

### Installing uClibc++ ###

# For LFS-uClibc:

export prefix=/usr

# To install beside an existing system leave $prefix alone.

# LFS-uClibc can run 'make menuconfig'. If you installed beside an existing system,
# then your ncurses library will not be found in ${prefix}, so only make config will
# work.

# To enable everything:

yes "" | make config

# Then fix the installation path:

sed -e "s at .*UCLIBCXX_RUNTIME_PREFIX.*@UCLIBCXX_RUNTIME_PREFIX=\"${prefix}\"@g" \
	-i .config

# The build and install uClibc++:

make &&
make install

# If you're installing beside an existing system, then make "g++-uc" link to /ulib:

sed -e 's@/usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/lib/@/ulib at g' -i ${prefix}/bin/g++-uc

# To use gcc++-uc, run:

export CXX="g++-uc"

# uClibc++ may not work with all packages, try it out and see. Also, uClibc++ depends
# on g++, so it is unable to bootstrap itself.

# If you installed beside an existing system, then also run:

export CC="/usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc/bin/i386-pc-linux-uclibc-gcc"

# If you installed uClibc beside an existing system, you can now remove the uclibc user
# and change the ownership of /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc.

chown -R 0:0 /usr/i386-pc-linux-uclibc

# Anything else you need to know should be covered by other documentation, such as
# the "Boot Disk Howto", etc.

# Send me comments or questions if you like.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
* Thanks to the uClibc team for creating this software.

CHANGELOG:
[2005-11-03]
* Initial hint



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