r1026 - trunk

archaic at linuxfromscratch.org archaic at linuxfromscratch.org
Sun Apr 2 09:13:32 PDT 2006


Author: archaic
Date: 2006-04-02 10:13:30 -0600 (Sun, 02 Apr 2006)
New Revision: 1026

Modified:
   trunk/wireless.txt
Log:
Updated wireless.txt.

Modified: trunk/wireless.txt
===================================================================
--- trunk/wireless.txt	2006-02-20 17:03:33 UTC (rev 1025)
+++ trunk/wireless.txt	2006-04-02 16:13:30 UTC (rev 1026)
@@ -1,34 +1,43 @@
-AUTHOR:				Dr. Edgar Alwers <edgaralwers at gmx.de>
+AUTHOR:Dr. Edgar Alwers <edgaralwers at gmx.de>
 
-DATE:					2006-01-26
+DATE:2006-03-26
 
-LICENSE:				GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2
+LICENSE:GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2
 
-SYNOPSIS:				Wireless Communication from the sources
+SYNOPSIS:Wireless Communication from the sources
 
-PREREQUISITES:			
+PREREQUISITES:
+BLFS 6.x with  kernel 2.6.15. Older kernels shoud work accordingly, with the
+correspondent firmware.
 
-BLFS 6.x with  kernel 2.6.15...Older kernels shoud work accordingly, with the correspondent firmware.
-
 DESCRIPTION:
+This is a Hint explaining how to prepare a PC for wireless communication with 
+the Internet and how to put it into operation. I solved this problem with the 
+help of hints and advices given by many persons, and working through lots of 
+papers, many of them not beeing actual anymore at this time.
+The object I had to deal with is an 'Acer' TravelMate 291LCi with Intel 
+Centrino Mobile Technology, equiped with an Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG
+(IEEE 802.11b/g) chip. The Laptop communicates with an 54 Mbps Wireless 
+Netgear ADSL Firewall Router DG834G as access point However, there are good 
+chances, that this hint may also be applied to other PC's with other drivers. 
+If you cannot obtain a native Linux driver for your wireless NIC, you may 
+want to try 'ndiswrapper', a package that will allow to load a Windows driver 
+under Linux.
+The kernel compiled is version 2.6.15. This kernel includes already the driver 
+ipw2200-1.0.8 and the iee802 subsystem and you may ask, why to build this two 
+items additionally. I experienced serious difficulties not compiling them and 
+decided to become independent from the kernel.
+This second issue of the hint deals with additional instructions, how to 
+operate a PC in a wireless field under a DHCP Server ( Dynamic Host Configura-
+tion Protocol ) providing  IP's to the clients. This is the probably situation 
+which will be found in most public locations, like airports, hotels etc. 
 
-This is a Hint ( draft )  explaining how to prepare a PC for wireless communication with the Internet and how to put it into operation. I am not an expert on this field, but I solved this problem with the help of hints and advices given by many persons, and working through lots of papers, most of them not beeing actual anymore at this time. 
-The object I had to deal with is an 'Acer' TravelMate 291LCi with Intel Centrino Mobile Technology, equiped with an Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG(IEEE 802.11b/g) chip. The Laptop communicates with an 54 Mbps Wireless Netgear ADSL Firewall Router DG834G as access point However, there are good chances, that this hint may also be applied to other PC's with other drivers.If you cannot obtain a native Linux driver for your wireless NIC, you may want to try 'ndiswrapper', a package that will allow to load a Windows driver under Linux.
-
-The kernel compiled is version 2.6.15. This kernel includes already the driver ipw2200-1.0.8 and the iee802 subsystem and you may ask, why to build this two items additionally. However, I experienced serious difficulties not compiling them and decided to become independent from the kernel.
-
-This is a draftt, comments and suggestions will be highly welcomed.
-
 HINT:
-
-KERNEL
-
+KERNEL:
 Download:
 	Kernel v. 2.6.15
 	http://www.kernel.org
-
 Configuring the kernel:
-
 	enable Networking->
 			Networking support->
 				Networking options->
@@ -40,162 +49,228 @@
 	device drivers->
 			Network device support->
 				Wireless LAN (non-harmradio)->
-					Wireless LAN drivers & Wireless Extensions
+					Wireless LAN drivers & Wireless 
+					Extensions
 	cryptographic API->
 			ARC4 cipher algorithm (Modul)
+compile and install the kernel according to the instructions of the book 
+'Linux From Scratch'
 
-compile and install the kernel according to the instructions of the book 'Linux From Scratch'
-
-HOTPLUG-2004_09_23
-
+HOTPLUG-2004_09_23:
 Scripts that react upon hotplug events generated by the kernel
 Download:
 	hotplug-2004_09_23.tar.bz2
 	Http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug
+Install hotplug according to the instructions given e.g. In the LFS-Book 
+SVN-20060125, Chapter 6.49
 
-Install hotplug according to the instructions given e.g. In the LFS-Book SVN-20060125, Chapter 6.49
-
-UDEV-071.TAR.BZ2
-
+UDEV-071.TAR.BZ2:
 Programs for dynamic creation of device nodes
-
 Download
 	udev-071.tar.bz2
 	ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug
-
 make DESTDIR=/ EXTRAS="extras=firmware extras/run_directory" 
 make DESTDIR=/ EXTRAS="extras=firmware extras/run_directory" install  
-install -m644 -D -v docs/writing_udev_rules/index.html /usr/share/doc/udev/071/index.html
+install -m644 -D -v docs/writing_udev_rules/index.html /usr/share/doc/udev/
+071/index.html
 /sbin/udevstart
-
-Check that 'firmware_helper', 'udev_run_devd' and 'udev_run_hotplugd' are installed in the /sbin directory.
-
+Check that 'firmware_helper', 'udev_run_devd' and 'udev_run_hotplugd' are 
+installed in the /sbin directory.
 Download the new udev-rules developed by Jim Gifford's cross lfs team
 	udev-cross-lfs.tar.bz2 
 	http://ftp.jg555.com/udev
-Untar the file, change to the 'udev-cross-lfs' directory and enter 'make install'. This  installs the new udev-rules in /etc/udev/rules.d
+Untar the file, change to the 'udev-cross-lfs' directory and enter 
+'make install'. This  installs the new udev-rules in /etc/udev/rules.d
 
-IEE80211-1.1.6
-
+IEE80211-1.1.12:
 Kernel subsystem dealing with communications security
-
 Download
-	ieee80211-1.1.6.tgz
+	ieee80211-1.1.12.tgz
 	http://ieee80211.sourceforge.net
-Untar the file, change to the ieee80211-1.1.6 directory and enter make, make install. 
+Untar the file, change to the ieee80211-1.1.12 directory and enter make, 
+make install. 
 Includes headerfiles in /lib/modules/2.6.15/net
 
-INTEL'S FIRMWARE
-
+INTEL'S FIRMWARE:
 Download the Firmware
 	ipw2200-fw-2.4
 	http://ipw2200.sourceforge.net
-Untar the file in the directory /lib/firmware. Seven files ipw-2.4-xxx.fw will be found there after untaring
+Untar the file in the directory /lib/firmware. Seven files ipw-2.4-xxx.fw 
+will be found there after untaring
 
-INTEL PRO/WIRELESS DRIVER 
-
-Driver that works on the Intel hardware adapter PRO/Wireless 2200BG Network Connection
+INTEL PRO/WIRELESS DRIVER :
+Driver that works on the Intel hardware adapter PRO/Wireless 2200BG Network 
+Connection
 Download the driver
-	ipw2200-1.0.8.tgz	
+	ipw2200-1.0.10.tgz	
 	http://ipw2200.sourceforge.net
-Untar the file, change to the ipw2200-1.0.8 directory and enter make, make install.
-
-The driver requires the firmware image as well as the ieee80211 module installed.sysfs should be already mounted.
-
+Untar the file, change to the ipw2200-1.0.10 directory and enter make, make 
+install. ( as su )
+I experienced serious problems compiling the new driver versions 1.0.12 and 
+1.0.13, so I would advice to stick to the above one for the time beeing.
+The driver requires the firmware image as well as the ieee80211 module 
+installed. "sysfs" should be already mounted.
 See also the INSTALL file for more instructions
 
-THE WIRELESS TOOLS 
-
+THE WIRELESS TOOLS:
 Set of tools that allows to manipulate Wireless Extensions
 Download the wireless tools:
 	wireless_tools.27.tar.gz
 	http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/ftp/contrib/
-Untar the file, change to the wireless_tools.27 directory and enter make, make install
-Seven tools will be installed in /usr/local/sbin: iwconfig, iwlist, ifrename,iwevent,iwgetid, iwpriv and iwspy
+Untar the file, change to the wireless_tools.27 directory and enter make, 
+make install
+Seven tools will be installed in /usr/local/sbin: iwconfig, iwlist, ifrename,
+iwevent,iwgetid, iwpriv and iwspy
 Make a link from KDE_Prefix/bin to /usr/local/sbin: 
 	ln -s /usr/local/sbin/iwconfig KDE_Prefix/bin/iwconfig
 
-BOOTING THE PC
-
-If everything went right, the PC boots and loads firmware and wireless-driver. The corresponding booting  messages will look like
+THE DHCPCD CLIENT SOFTWARE:
+Software to connect a computer to a network which uses DHCP to assign network 
+addresses.There are two alternatives: dhcp, which includes also the server 
+software, and dhcpcd, an implementation of the DHCP client specified in 
+RFC2131. I prefered  dhcpcd, wich seems to be more simple.
+Download 
+	dhcpcd-2.0.1.tar.bz2
+	http://developer.berlios.de/projects/dhcpcd/
+Untar, change to the dhcpcd-2.0.1 directory and enter
+	./configure --prefix="" --sysconfdir=/var/lib
+	and, as superuser, make.
+The reason for the prefix "" in the configuration command is explained in the 
+blfs-book, version 6.1, chapter 14. Install the network service script 
+/etc/sysconfig/network-devices/services/dhcpcd as indicated in the same place
+	
+BOOTING THE PC:
+If everything went right, the PC boots and loads firmware and wireless-driver. 
+The corresponding booting  messages will look like
 	........
 	ieee80211_crypt: registered algorithm 'NULL'
 	ieee80211: 802.11 data/management/control stack, 1.1.6
-	ieee80211: Copyright (C) 2004-2005 Intel Corporation <jketreno at linux.intel.com>
+	ieee80211: Copyright (C) 2004-2005 Intel Corporation <jketreno at linux.
+		   intel.com>
 	ipw2200: Intel(R) PRO/Wireless 2200/2915 Network Driver, 1.0.8
 	ipw2200: Copyright(c) 2003-2005 Intel Corporation
 	ACPI: PCI Interrupt Link [LNKG] enabled at IRQ 10
-	ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:01:02.0[A] -> Link [LNKG] -> GSI 10 (level, low) -> IRQ 10
+	ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:01:02.0[A] -> Link [LNKG] -> GSI 10 
+		 (level, low) -> IRQ 10
 	ipw2200: Detected Intel PRO/Wireless 2200BG Network Connection
 	.........
 
-MONITORING PROGRAMS
+MONITORING PROGRAMS:
+There are many prrograms that allows the monitoring of wireless communi-
+cations. I installed two of them: 'kismet' and 'KWiFiManager'.
+'kismet' is a small wireless network detector, sniffer and intrusion 
+detection system. 
+Download 'kismet-2005-08-R1.tar.gz' from http://www.kismetwireless.net/
+download.shtml
+untar the file, enter make and make suidinstall. Run kismet the first time 
+as root. Kismet runs on a  shell console.
 
-There are many prrograms that allows the monitoring of wireless communications. I installed two of them: 'kismet' and 'KWiFiManager'.
+'kwifimanager' is a KDE frontend program used to configure and monitor 
+wireless LAN cards. 'kwifimanager' is part of 'kdenetwork'. Download 
+kdenetwork_3.4.1.tar.bz2 and follow the instructions given e.g. in 
+BLFS - Version 6.1, chapter 29. Wireless tools should be installed before 
+building this packet.
 
-'kismet' is a small wireless network detector, sniffer and intrusion detection system. 
-Download 'kismet-2005-08-R1.tar.gz' from http://www.kismetwireless.net/download.shtml
-untar the file, enter make and make suidinstall. Run kismet the first time as root. Kismet runs on a  shell console.
+CONFIGURING THE ROUTER -  SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS:
+during the installation of the wireless system, the safety options of the 
+router are deactivated. Now, it is time to activate them. Access the settings 
+menu of the router through a browser, entering something like 
+http://192.168.0.1. I activated WEP ( Wired Equivalent Privacy ) with  64 bit 
+encryption. You may consider a 125 bit encryption
+Enter a password in the encryption field, and the router will generate four 
+keys, each one consisting of 10 characters, combining numbers 1 to 9 and 
+letters A-F, like:EC670531BE. The first of this four keys is the one beeing 
+normally used.
+Furthermore, the MAC-addresses ( Media Access Control ) of the laptop's and 
+PC's wich are allowed to access the router shoud be entered in the access 
+list 'trusted wireless stations'. You may get the MAC addresses  from the list 
+of connected devices in the settings menu of the router or with the help of 
+a network exploration tool like 'nmap' ( Network Mapper ), in  the last case 
+e.g. entering 'nmap -sP 192.168.0.1/22'
+However, even a 125 bit encryption does not give a real security today. 
+According to a note contributed by Bryan Kadzban,  real security can only be 
+obtained with WPA or WPA2 encryption. You may want to consider this, if you 
+have confidential data to transmit.
 
-'kwifimanager' is a KDE frontend program used to configure and monitor wireless LAN cards. 'kwifimanager' is part of 'kdenetwork'. Download kdenetwork_3.4.1.tar.bz2 and follow the instructions given e.g. In BLFS - Version 6.1, chapter 29. Wireless tools should be installed before building this packet.
-
-CONFIGURING THE ROUTER -  SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
-
-during the installation of the wireless system, the safety options of the router are deactivated. Now, it is time to activate them. Access the settings menu of the router through a browser, entering something like http://192.168.0.1. I activated WEP ( Wired Equivalent Privacy ) with  64 bit encryption. You may consider a 125 bit encryption
-
-Enter a password in the encryption field, and the router will generate four keys, each one consisting of 10 characters, combining numbers 1 to 9 and letters A-F, like:EC670531BE. The first of this four keys is the one beeing normally used.
-
-Furthermore, the MAC-addresses ( Media Access Control ) of the laptop's and PC's wich are allowed to access the router shoud be entered in the access list 'trusted wireless stations'. You may get the MAC addresses  from the list of connected devices in the settings menu of the router or with the help of a network exploration tool like 'nmap' ( Network Mapper ), in  the last case e.g. entering 'nmap -sP 192.168.0.1/22'
-
-CONFIGURING THE PC FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
-
-immediately after the safety options of the router are activated, the PC will not more be able to see the access point: the PC also needs to be configured. 
-
-Entering the command 'iwconfig eth1 key xxxxxxxxxx'  enables the communication, but not permanently. For a permanent configuration, write a shell-script e.g.'connect' in /etc/rc.d/init.d:
+CONFIGURING THE PC FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS:
+immediately after the safety options of the router are activated, the PC will 
+not more be able to see the access point: the PC also needs to be configured. 
+Entering the command 'iwconfig eth1 key xxxxxxxxxx'  enables the communi-
+cation, but not permanently. For a permanent configuration, write a 
+shell-script e.g.'connect' in /etc/rc.d/init.d:
 	$!/bin/sh
 	/usr/local/sbin/iwconfig eth1 key xxxxxxxxxx
-and make this script executable: chmod ug+x connect. Make a symbolic link in /etc/rc.d/rc3.d that points to this script: ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/connect S19connect. The link should start with something like S19, as the script should be run before the S20network script is executed. 
-
-Furthermore, crreate a directory 'ifconfig.eth1' in '/etc/sysconfig/network-devices', cd to this directory and create a ipv4 file:
+and make this script executable: chmod ug+x connect. Make a symbolic link 
+in /etc/rc.d/rc3.d that points to this script: 
+ln -s /etc/rc.d/init.d/connect S19connect. The link should start with 
+something like S19, as the script should be run before the S20network script 
+is executed. For an unencrypted system, likely to be found on public places, 
+the command in the script should not contain a key:
+	/usr/local/sbin/iwconfig eth1
+Create a directory 'ifconfig.eth1' in '/etc/sysconfig/network-devices', and 
+cd to this directory. 
+For operation withouth DHCP create a ipv4 file:
 	ONBOOT=yes
 	SERVICE=ipv4-static
-	IP=192.168.1.3			// the address of your box
+	IP=192.168.1.3		// the address of your box
 	GATEWAY=192.168.1.9	// the address of your router
 	PREFIX=24
 	BROADCAST=192.168.1.255
 	NETMASK=255.255.255.0
-And, last, change GATEWAY_IF in /etc/sysconfig/network to eth1.
+and change GATEWAY_IF in /etc/sysconfig/network to eth1.
+For operation with DHCP create instead ipv4 a file dhcpcd:
+	ONBOOT="no"
+	SERVICE="dhcpcd"
+	DHCP_START="eth1 -t 20"
+	DHCP_STOP="-k "
+	# Set PRINTIP="yes" to have the script print
+	# the DHCP assigned IP address
+	PRINTIP="yes"
+	# Set PRINTALL="yes" to print the DHCP assigned values for
+	# IP, SM, DG, and 1st NS. This requires PRINTIP="yes".
+	PRINTALL="no"
 
-USING THE WIRELESS CONNECTION
+USING THE WIRELESS CONNECTION :
+After booting, lsmod shows
+	Module			Size			Used by
+	ipw2200			176576	0
+	ieee80211		  42664	1  		ipw2200 
+	ieee80211_crypt	    	4804	1  		ieee80211 
 
-After rebooting, lsmod shows
-	Module			Size		Used by
-	ipw2200		176576	0
-	ieee80211		  42664	1  ipw2200 
-	ieee80211_crypt	    4804	1  ieee80211 
-
-The command 'iwconfig eth1' in a console delivers
+The command 'iwconfig eth1' entered in a console delivers
 	eth1      IEEE 802.11g  ESSID:"Mannheim"  
-          	Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.462 GHz  Access Point: 00:0A:B5:CF:64:28   
-          	Bit Rate=48 Mb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
-          	Retry limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
-          	Encryption key:57E4-DB3A-B1   Security mode:open
-          	Power Management:off
-          	Link Quality=95/100  Signal level=-29 dBm  Noise level=-86 dBm
-          	Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
-          	Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0
-The connection to the access pont is therefore activ.
+       	Mode:Managed  Frequency:2.462 GHz  Access Point: 00:0A:B5:CF:64:28   
+       	Bit Rate=48 Mb/s   Tx-Power=20 dBm   
+       	Retry limit:7   RTS thr:off   Fragment thr:off
+       	Encryption key:57E4-DB3A-B1   Security mode:open
+       	Power Management:off
+       	Link Quality=95/100  Signal level=-29 dBm  Noise level=-86 dBm
+       	Rx invalid nwid:0  Rx invalid crypt:0  Rx invalid frag:0
+       	Tx excessive retries:0  Invalid misc:0   Missed beacon:0
+As the ONBOOT parameter was set to 'yes', the connection to the access point 
+is already activ.
+The internet browser should be configured with direct access to the internet. 
+Opening the browser should establish immediately a connection.
 
-The internet browser should be configured with direct access to the internet. Opening the browser should immediately establish a connection.
+USING THE WIRELESS CONNECTION UNDER A DHCP SERVER:
+I experienced some problems starting the dhcpcd daemon during the boot 
+process. So I decided to set the ONBOOT parameter in the file 
+/etc/sysconfig/network-devices/ifconfig.eth1/dhcpcd to 'no', as indicated 
+above, and to start as 'su' a little script 'eth1_connect' :
+	#!/bin/bash
+	/sbin/dhcpcd eth1
+	# end
+After starting the daemon dhcpcd, the connection to the access point is 
+activ.
 
+AKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
+I have tryed to compile articles, informations, hints and answers to questions 
+I put in the BLFS-mailing list to this hint. Many thanks to all those who 
+contributed: Gabe Yoder, Andrew Benton, Alexander E. Patrakov, Jim Gifford, 
+David Fix, Rainer Peter Feller, Chris Staub, Randy McMurchy,
+Jeremy Monnet, Stefan Krah, Bryan Kadzban.
 
-AKNOWLEDGEMENTS
-
-I have tryed to compile articles, informations, hints and answers to questions I put in the BLFS-mailing list to this hint. Many thanks to all those who contributed: Gabe Yoder, Andrew Benton, Alexander E. Patrakov, Jim Gifford, David Fix, Rainer Peter Feller, Chris Staub, Randy McMurchy,
-Jeremy Monnet, Stefan Krah. And in advance thanks to those who, hopfully, will give a feedback to this paper 
-
-LINKS AND LITERATURE
-
+LINKS AND LITERATURE:
 Intel PRO/Wireless driver
 http://ipw2200.sourceforge.net						
 
@@ -209,7 +284,8 @@
 http://www.kismetwireless.net/documentation.shtml
 
 The devices, the drivers... Jean Tourrilhes
-http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/Linux.Wireless.drivers.802.1.11ag.html#CentrinoAG
+http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/Linux.Wireless.drivers.
+802.1.11ag.html#CentrinoAG
 
 Sane network interface management with Hotplug. Jean Tourrilhes
 http://www.hpl.hp.com/personal/jean_Tourrilhes/Linux/HOTPLUG.txt
@@ -217,4 +293,16 @@
 ndiswraper
 http://ndiswrapper.sourceforge.net/mediawiki/index.php/Installation
 
-CHANGELOG:
\ No newline at end of file
+
+CHANGELOG:
+[2006-01-26]
+	initial hint
+[2006-03-26]
+	Remarks concerning safety considerations
+	Additional notes concerning DHCP-Server operation
+	Chapter "The DHCPCD Client Software" 
+	Configuring the PC for operation under DHCP 
+	Subsystem IEE80211-1.1.6 changed to IEE80211-1.1.12
+	Intel PRO/WIRELESS driver ipw2200-1.0.8 changed to ipw2200-1.0.10
+	Using the wireless connection under a DHCP server
+	




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