Hint : Trip, a Trivial Packager for LFS

Pierre Hebert pierrot at 1000wallpapers.com
Sun May 14 00:04:50 PDT 2006


Hi everybody !

I'm happy to submit a hint about package management (yes I know, yet another 
package manager...). 
This one is targeted at LFS (but can be used with other systems) and uses a 
combination of unionfs and chroot to track changes during an installation, 
and prevent the root file system to be altered.
I hope it will be of interest.

best regards,

Pierre.

-------------- next part --------------
AUTHOR: Pierre Hebert <pierrot at 1000wallpapers dot com>

DATE: 2006-05-13

LICENSE: GNU Free Documentation License Version 1.2

SYNOPSIS: TRIP, a TRIvial Packager for LFS (and other linux systems)

DESCRIPTION:
Trip is a package manager focusing on the LFS users needs : build many, install
once. Trip tracks modified files during install, thanks to a simple but 100%
reliable mechanism : a combination of unionfs and chroot usage. Trip can be used
with no restrictions on other Linux than LFS.

PREREQUISITES:
This hint requires :
- a sufficient knowledge of LinuxFromScratch.
- a sufficient knowledge of the linux problematic of package management. I
suggest reading among other documents :
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/fakeroot.txt from Tushar
Teredesai.
- a linux 2.6 system with unionfs >= 1.1.3
- root privileges
- the desire to experiment somewhat weird stuff.


HINT:

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Background
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
After having built quite a lot of LFS system I found that a LFS user is faced to
a particular package context :
- a LFS user install a LOT OF packages
- each package is installed once (maybe two...)
- a LFS user wants to know what is installed (every added, modified and
eventually deleted files)

As a LFS user what I want is : 
- run "make install" as root, and see what has been done
- be able to come back immediately to the state before "make install", as if I
didn't execute "make install"
- store packages information in a simple database, and eventually be able to
uninstall them

What I don't want :
- complexity
- to endlessly patch makefiles and/or sources because of the packaging tool
needs

Most of the well known package managers like RPM or DPKG do not fill these needs
at all. Their aim is to build a package once, and install it often. They are not
designed for users like LFS users, because it's not exactly easy to create spec
files for example. These sort of package managers require a knowledge of each
package in order to be sure not to miss some files. It is especially difficult
with packages that are not built with autoconf/automake.

Beside that I also notice that there is currently no 100% reliable method to
know what files is modified during a "make install" (or other command).
 * The fakeroot approach doesn't prevent a package to install files where it
wants, of course. For example it is easy to confuse a system with a mistake in a
RPM spec file.
 * The LD_PRELOAD mechanism, associated with the overload of some functions like
"open", "mkdir", etc seems, at first, to be a solution. I have been using it for
a while, with a lot of satisfaction, coupled with RPM and DPKG. You can have a
look at Checkinstall (http://asic-linux.com.mx/~izto/checkinstall/) or Paco
(http://paco.sourceforge.net/). There are several other projects using
LD_PRELOAD.
Unfortunately this trick has some limitations, the bigger is to be "blind" with
set uid programs. The second is the complexity of the LD_PRELOADed library which
is tightly linked to glibc internal mechanisms.
 * The technique of finding files according to their creation/modification will
fail with some packages because some uses "cp -p" for example. So you are never
really sure of what have been installed.

But in my opinion the biggest problem with these techniques is that once the
system has been modified, you may know what has been touched, but you may not be
able to come back to the original state.

Another package management is the Package Users technique : it is great and
really powerfull because it totally prevents any unwanted modification of the
system (see
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/downloads/files/more_control_and_pkg_man.
txt). However in my opinion it requires too many work for each package,
especially on install targets in makefiles.

After all, I wasn't satisfied by existing package managers, even if I am
convinced of the interest of each method. So I was looking for another method to
track any arbitrary changes on a filesystem, and finally the answer was almost
evident : unionfs. The idea is explained in the following paragraph.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Idea
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The idea of trip is to use two filesystems in a union filesystem. See
http://www.unionfs.org/.
One filesystem is the target filesystem on which the user wants to do "make
install", and is used READ-ONLY, the second is an empty filesystem merged with
the first, and used READ-WRITE.

Let's take an example fstab :
/dev/hdb1      /mnt/lfs     ext3   defaults                    0    0
/dev/hdc1      /mnt/pkg     ext3   defaults                    0    0
unionfs        /mnt/union   unionfs dirs=/mnt/pkg:/mnt/lfs=ro  0    0

The result of this is :
- if we read a file in /mnt/union, it will be read from /mnt/lfs, if it doesn't
exists in /mnt/pkg
- if we create a file in /mnt/union it will be really created in /mnt/pkg
- if we modify a file in /mnt/union belonging to /mnt/lfs it will be copied and
modified in /mnt/pkg
- if we delete a file in /mnt/union belonging to /mnt/lfs, a special file will
be created in /mnt/pkg (whiteout mode)
- the overall behaviour of the program executing in /mnt/union is as if there
were only one normal filesystem.

Hence a chroot in a union filesystem gives these marvelous benefits : 
- in no case the /mnt/lfs will be altered
- created, deleted and modified files are all stored in /mnt/pkg
- all libraries and tools are available in their real prefix, running
./configure --prefix=/usr is possible.
It's a bit like magic and this is all we need for trip. Could it be easier to
know what has been made by "make install" (or any other command) ?

Note that this simple idea could be implemented in other package managers with
probably few work.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip history and goals
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip was really born under the temporary name of sp, somewhere in late 2005, I
don't remember when exactly. SP stands for "Smart Package", where Smart itself
stands for "Simple Management of Really Trivial" package. Unfortunately another
software was named Smart Package so sp becames trip.
At the beginning this was just a simple shell script to test the unionfs method.
This script only listed the modified/created/deleted files after a "make
install". But soon it finally becames a sufficient package manager that I called
"trip".
Trip is a trivial package manager because it manages a trivial package format,
i.e. gnu tar. Why would we use obscure package formats, since we can use
powerfull and simple tools like tar ?

Trip is inspired from some RPM base concepts, and also from Pacman (Arch Linux
package manager).

That is all the short history of trip.

At time of writting, trip is a 934 lines bash script, with lots of comments. And
I used it to manage about 500 packages from linux-libc-headers to kde.


The main goals of trip are :
- 100% safe installation
- able to package a whole LFS system
- be as simple as possible, I fear too complex package managers that need
beecrypt, neon and rpm2cpio...
- opened : I want to be able to see what is in packages before to install them,
modify packages eventually, modify the package database in case of problem.

One special goal quoted before is to be "able to package a whole LFS system". In
the past I built some LFS, then install RPM or DPKG for example. But the base
LFS itself was not packaged, so there was always a dark area that could be
altered without problem. Trip is designed to run during the Chapter 6 of LFS,
with nothing but /tools and unionfs.

At last but not least, trip does not intend to be a replacement of any other
package manager. In fact trip does very few things. Its primary goal is perhaps
to demonstrate the use of unionfs and chroot together, in order to provide a
really strong package management at an uncommonly low cost.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip install
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In this paragraph we explain how to install trip for use later in the Chapter 6
of LFS.

We assume that we get those filesystems: 
/mnt/lfs : LFS system target, $LFS=/mnt/lfs
/mnt/pkg : free filesystem in which are put installed files
/mnt/union : merge of /mnt/lfs(ro) and /mnt/pkg(rw)

* Step 1 : put the trip directory at the root of the target LFS system.
(see later for download)
	cd $LFS && tar xf /foo/bar/trip.tar
	ln $LFS/trip / (same idea as /tools in fact : trip is available from the
same path, chroot or not)
	export PATH=$PATH:/trip/trip/bin

* Step 2 : prepare a second empty file system, with enough space to compile and
install the glibc (biggest package in LFS ?). Later you may need more space, for
example KDE needs lots of space. I suggest 1 or 2 GB, if you can.
Warning : loop devices can't be used safely actually with unionfs.
Example :
	mkfs.ext3 /dev/hdc1
	mkdir /mnt/pkg
	echo "/dev/hdc1   /mnt/pkg     ext3   defaults  0  0" >> /etc/fstab
	mount /mnt/pkg (keep it mounted)

* Step 3 : prepare the unionfs filesystem
Example :
	modprobe unionfs
	echo "unionfs /mnt/union unionfs dirs=/mnt/pkg:/mnt/lfs=ro 0 0" >>
/etc/fstab
	mount /mnt/union && umount /mnt/union (just to see if it works, but
don't keep it mounted)

* Step 4 : trip configuration
For now take the following configuration and put it in /trip/trip/conf/conf:

---------- cut after this line -------------
# TRIP configuration file
# TRIP is a TRIvial Packager
# copyright 2006 Pierre Hebert <pierrot at 1000wallpapers.com>
# http://things.1000wallpapers.com/

# the real root filesystem, in which resides the operating system
TRIP_FS_ROOT=/mnt/lfs

# the filesystem on which are temporarily created the files during the install
phase
TRIP_FS_PKG=/mnt/pkg

# the union filesystem mergin $TRIP_FS_ROOT(ro) and $TRIP_FS_PKG(rw)
TRIP_FS_UNION=/mnt/union

# the package repository root
TRIP_PKG_ROOT=/trip/lfs-svn-20060416

# where to install binary packages
TRIP_INSTALL_DIR=/mnt/lfs

# the mode tell if we use /tools or / as build environment (hosted = build from
/tools, normal=/)
TRIP_MODE=hosted

# level of activity reporting
TRIP_TRACE_LEVEL=3

# root location of temporary files
TRIP_TMPDIR=/trip/tmp
---------- cut before this line -------------

Et voila, trip is ready to go.
Now let's see what's in the trip directory and how it works before to continue.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip usage in short
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The common usage of trip is :
trip --build /path/to/my/source/trip/package
trip --install /path/to/the/binary/package/created
or
trip --wizard (and answer to the question)


Trip handles three different inputs, more or less the same way as RPM :
- source package directory : a source package directory is structured as bellow:
	src/ :  contains the .tar.gz archives, eventually some patches or other
          files.
	support/ : contains an "identification" file (meta infos), a "build.sh"
             script (optionnal) and an "install.sh" script. In this "support" 
             subdirectory we can also optionally find a file "exclude" and 
             another "include" that list files to systematically exclude or 
             include from the binary package. Finally in support there may be 
             four helper scripts called {pre,post}_{,un}install.sh.

- source package archive : simply a tar archive of a source package directory.

- binary package archive : a tar archive containing all files modified during
the execution of the script "install.sh", and the file "identification", that
gives meta info about this package, and eventually {pre,post}_{,un}install.sh
scripts.

The purpose of {pre,post}_{,un}install.sh is to execute some tasks upon the
extraction of a binary package, or the uninstallation of the package. For
example when installing MySQL, the post_install.sh script will contains
something like "/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql start".

The basic work of trip when using "trip --build /path/to/my/source/trip/package"
is (simplified) :
- read "identification" file from
/path/to/my/source/trip/package/support/identification
- create a temp directory in which build the package
- mount the /mnt/union unionfs filesystem (and virtual filesystems too)
- chroot into /mnt/union
- execute /path/to/my/source/trip/package/support/build.sh
- execute /path/to/my/source/trip/package/support/install.sh
- leave chroot from /mnt/union, umount /mnt/union
- see what has been modified and stored in /mnt/pkg
- create a binary package of those modified files

When invoking "trip --install /path/to/the/binary/package/created" :
- check file conflicts (basic check)
- extract files from the binary archive
- store an entry in the package database

trip --help gives :
+ usage : trip --config_dir <dir>
+              --install <binary package file>
+              --uninstall <package name>
+              --rebuild <source package file>
+              --build <source package directory>
+              --wizard
+              --list [<package name>]
+              --find-file <file>
+              --help

Here is a short explanation of these switches :
--config_dir : location of trip configuration, normally default value is ok
--install : install a binary trip package
--uninstall : do what its name means
--rebuild : build a binary trip package from a source package
--build : build a binary trip package from a source directory
--wizard : very useful mode where you are asked some questions, and where a
skeleton source directory is created with your answer.
--list : list all installed packages (more or less "ls -d /path/to/db"...), or
list files from a package
--find-file : find the package which installed a file

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip content
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Inside /trip (from the trip.tar) you should find something like that :
/trip :
	- trip/
		- bin/ : contains the trip shell script
		- conf/ : contains the trip configuration
		- doc/ : some poor documentation
	- lfs-svn-20060416 : the LFS packages from the lfs-svn-20060416 book, as
an example
		- src/ : source package directories
		- bin_pkg : where the binary packages are created
		- src_pkg : where the source packages are created
		- db : the installed package database
	- tmp : used to build packages


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Usage of trip during LFS chapter 6, from a host Linux system
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In this paragraph we explain how to use trip during the Chapter 6 of LFS. At
this stage the $LFS/tools is ready. Stop at "6.1 Introduction". As a starting
point we use LFS-SVN-20060416, but you may use another version of course.

Note 1 : You must have installed trip as explained before and completed the 4
steps.

Note 2 : Each package of the LFS chapter 6 has its own trip source package, but
there are some more trip packages not linked to a particular package. And for
that matter the first package is "lfs-base" and its purpose is to create the FHS
directory tree for example, and also some other essential files. The source
packages used here have in general "build.sh" and "install.sh" scripts cut and
pasted from the book.

Note 3 : during the building of the LFS system when we say "install package
foo-1.2.3" it means :
	trip --build "/trip/lfs-svn-20060416/src/foo-1.2.3
	trip --install "/trip/lfs-svn-20060416/bin_pkg/foo-1.2.3-*.tar.gz"



* Prepare virtual filesystem and some essential link to the shell

  mkdir -p $LFS/{dev,proc,sys,bin,tmp}
  mknod -m 600 $LFS/dev/console c 5 1
  mknod -m 666 $LFS/dev/null c 1 3
  ln -s /tools/bin/bash $LFS/bin/bash
  ln -s bash $LFS/bin/sh

* install package lfs-base

* install package linux-libc-headers-2.6.12.0

* create some essential symlinks
  ln -s /tools/bin/{cat,grep,pwd,stty} $LFS/bin
  ln -s /tools/bin/perl $LFS/usr/bin
  ln -s /tools/lib/libgcc_s.so{,.1} $LFS/lib

* install package glibc-2.3.6

* re-adjusting the toolchain
  chroot "$LFS" /tools/bin/env -i HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/tools/bin /tools/bin/bash --login +h
  mv /tools/bin/{ld,ld-old}
  mv /tools/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/bin/{ld,ld-old}
  mv /tools/bin/{ld-new,ld}
  ln -s /tools/bin/ld /tools/$(gcc -dumpmachine)/bin/ld
  gcc -dumpspecs | \
  perl -p -e 's@/tools/lib/ld-linux.so.2@/lib/ld-linux.so.2 at g;' \
      -e 's@\*startfile_prefix_spec:\n@$_/usr/lib/ @g;' > \
          `dirname $(gcc --print-libgcc-file-name)`/specs

* install the following packages. Note that you will get conflicts on these
packages : gcc, coreutils, perl, bash, grep : this is normal because we created
some symlinks before. To ignore the conflict use the following command :
	trip --no-conflict --install \
"/trip/lfs-svn-20060416/bin_pkg/foo-1.2.3-*.tar.gz"

List of packages to install in that order :
binutils-2.16.1
gcc-4.0.3
db-4.4.20
coreutils-5.94
iana-etc-2.00
m4-1.4.4
bison-2.1
ncurses-5.5
procps-3.2.6
sed-4.1.5
libtool-1.5.22
perl-5.8.8
readline-5.1
zlib-shared-1.2.3
zlib-static-1.2.3
autoconf-2.59
automake-1.9.6
bash-3.1
bzip2-1.0.3
diffutils-2.8.1
e2fsprogs-1.38
file-4.17
findutils-4.2.27
flex-2.5.33
gawk-3.1.5
gettext-0.14.5
grep-2.5.1a
groff-1.18.1.1
grub-0.97
gzip-1.3.5
inetutils-1.4.2
iproute2-2.6.16-060323
kbd-1.12
less-394
make-3.80
man-db-2.4.3
man-pages-2.25
mktemp-1.5
module-init-tools-3.2.2
patch-2.5.4
psmisc-22.2
shadow-4.0.15
sysklogd-1.4.1
sysvinit-2.86
tar-1.15.1
texinfo-4.8
udev-088
util-linux-2.12r
vim-6.4
lfs-bootscripts-20060415
lfs-configuration-20060416
linux-2.6.16.5

The "shadow" package requires some manual configuration :
	chroot "$LFS" /tools/bin/env -i HOME=/root TERM="$TERM" PS1='\u:\w\$ ' \
PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/tools/bin /tools/bin/bash --login +h
	pwconv
	grpconv
	rm /etc/{passwd-,group-,shadow-,gshadow-}
	passwd root

The two last packages contains some default configurations that you will
certainly want to change. So have a look at the content of these packages in
order to adapt them to your needs.
I suggest at this point to come back to the book at "7.5. Configuring the
setclock Script" for the last steps. You will in particular need to :
- edit /boot/grum/menu.lst
- edit /etc/fstab
- run grub

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Usage of trip from the LFS system
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Once the LFS has been completed and booted, it is time to build some more
packages. But before you must update the configuration of trip since the $LFS
mount point has changed : it is not /mnt/lfs anymore, it is /. So update your
/trip/trip/conf/conf files as this :

---------- cut after this line -------------
# TRIP configuration file
# TRIP is a TRIvial Packager
# copyright 2006 Pierre Hebert <pierrot at 1000wallpapers.com>
# http://things.1000wallpapers.com/

# the real root filesystem, in which resides the operating system
TRIP_FS_ROOT=/

# the filesystem on which are temporarily created the files during the install
phase
TRIP_FS_PKG=/mnt/pkg

# the union filesystem mergin $TRIP_FS_ROOT(ro) and $TRIP_FS_PKG(rw)
TRIP_FS_UNION=/mnt/union

# the package repository root, where packages are created
TRIP_PKG_ROOT=/trip/lfs-svn-20060416

# where to install binary packages
TRIP_INSTALL_DIR=/

# the mode tell if we use /tools or / as build environment (hosted = build from
/tools, normal=/)
TRIP_MODE=normal

# level of activity reporting
TRIP_TRACE_LEVEL=3

# root location of temporary files
TRIP_TMPDIR=/trip/tmp
---------- cut before this line -------------

Edit your /etc/fstab and replace the /mnt/union line by something like :
unionfs        /mnt/union   unionfs dirs=/mnt/pkg:/=ro 0   0
(the "dirs" option has changed)

Now you can continue your LFS system with trip, if you think it worth using it.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Download Trip
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip is available at :
http://things.1000wallpaper.com/trip/trip.tar
This is a 170Mb archive because it contains all source packages needed for LFS.
And this hint is available at 
http://things.1000wallpaper.com/trip

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Known limitations
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 * As we merge two filesystem there is a problem if your linux installation is
based on several filesystem (for example / and /usr), because /usr won't be
visible from /mnt/union.
A solution (not tested yet) may be to use unionfs-fuse (see
http://podgorny.cz/moin/UnionFsFuse) which may be slower but is more flexible
that the kernel based unonfs. However unionfs-fuse seems to not support
currently read-only branches.
 * trip works only on Linux, with bash. It has few prerequisites though, such as
tar, coreutils, grep, etc.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conclusion
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Trip is at alpha stage and may not go beyond beta. However I really hope this 
little tool and especially the idea behind the tool will be usefull or at least 
interesting to some LFS users, and also for non LFS users.

And of course, feedback will be appreciated.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
  * http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/ (and BLFS too)
  * http://www.unionfs.org/
  * http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/

CHANGELOG:
[2006-05-13]
  * Initial hint.



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