entropy hint update

Robert Connolly robert at linuxfromscratch.org
Wed May 16 04:51:27 PDT 2007


On Wednesday May 16 2007 07:12, Bryan Kadzban wrote:
> Robert Connolly wrote:
> > Add Udev permissions with the following command:
> > echo "erandom:root:root:0444
> > frandom:root:root:0444" >> /etc/udev/permissions.d/25-lfs.permissions
>
> FYI, this is no longer supported by the current LFS version of udev.
>
> It should be:
>
> echo 'NAME=="erandom", MODE="0444"
> NAME=="frandom", MODE="0444"' >>/etc/udev/rules.d/25-lfs.rules
>
> (The default UID and GID are both 0.)

Thanks. I also found a "__linux" typo. New hint is attached.

robert
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AUTHOR:		Robert Connolly <robert at linuxfromscratch dot org> (ashes)

DATE:		2007-05-16

LICENSE:	Public Domain

SYNOPSIS:	Entropy and random number generators in Linux

PRIMARY URL:	http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/hints/

DESCRIPTION:
The word "entropy" generally means "chaos", "disorder", or "uncertainty". In
this hint "entropy" is used to describe random computer data.

Many system components depend on entropy (random numbers) for various tasks.
One of the simplest examples would be the fortune(6) program, which gives a
random quote from a list when we log in. Another simple example is a solitaire
card game, or the shuffle option in a music player. Without random numbers
these programs would generate the same results every time they run. The above
examples are low security applications. It is not critical for them to use
high quality random numbers, and in applications like these the current system
time and date is usually an adequate source of entropy.

Examples of medium security uses for entropy would be applications like
mktemp(1), password salt, or the Stack Smashing Protector (SSP) GCC feature.
These applications need unpredictable entropy to function securely, but the
life span of these applications is generally short, so they do not need to use
the highest quality entropy available. Using the system time is unsafe for
these applications because it is predictable.

Cryptographic keys tend to have a very long life, often several years. Even
after the key is eventually replaced, everything it was used to encrypt remains
only as safe as the entropy used to generate the key. For cryptography we want
to use the best entropy possible, and conserve this high quality entropy
specifically for cryptography.

Generating true entropy in a computer is fairly difficult because nothing,
outside of quantum physics, is random. The Linux kernel uses keyboard, mouse,
network, and disc activities, with a cryptographic algorithm (SHA1), to
generate data for the /dev/random device. One of the problems with this is that
the input is not constant, so the kernel entropy pool can easily become empty.
The /dev/random device is called a "blocking device". This means if the entropy
pool is empty applications trying to use /dev/random will have to wait,
indefinitely, until something refills the pool. This is both a feature and a
nuisance, and can cause a denial of service depending on the application.
Another problem with using the keyboard, mouse, network, and disc activity is
that on idle, unmanned, and disc-less systems there is very little, or no, input
of this kind. It is also theoretically possible for an observer (keyboard or
network sniffer) to predict the entropy pool without having root level access.
The only real solution to these vulnerabilities is in using a hardware-based
random number generator. These hardware devices usually use electrical static
as a source of entropy, because there is currently no technology that can
reliably predict this. The best hardware random number generators use
radioactive decay as an entropy source.

The /dev/urandom device is referred to as a pseudo-random device (like-random),
although /dev/random is also pseudo-random but to a lesser extent. /dev/urandom
uses small amounts of data from /dev/random to seed a secondary entropy pool.
This has the effect of inflating the real entropy so it can be conserved. Using
/dev/urandom can cause /dev/random's pool to become empty, but if this happens
/dev/urandom will not block, and it will continue using the last available
seed. This makes /dev/urandom theoretically vulnerable to outputting repeating
data, depending on the limitations of the algorithm used, but this is extremely
rare and to my knowledge has never actually happened. /dev/urandom is widely
considered safe for all cryptographic purposes, except by the most paranoid
people.

This hint contains links to web sites and patches to help you get more entropy,
and use it more conservatively.

PREREQUISITES:
Glibc-2.5, for the arc4random patch.
The entropy daemons have no prerequisites.

HINT:

	Contents:
		Gkernel hwrandom daemon
		Audio/Video entropy daemon
		LavaRnd entropy daemon
		Frandom and Erandom kernel drivers
		Fortuna kernel driver
		Arc4random library
		Entropy pool size
		OpenSSL modifications
		Testing

- Gkernel hwrandom daemon:
http://linuxcertified.com/hw_random.html
Some systems have hardware devices for random numbers. The kernel supports
many of them. For more information check the above web site. Also see:
http://sourceforge.net/projects/gkernel/

The installation is strait forward for Glibc:

./configure --prefix=/usr &&
make &&
make install

--- End Glibc installation ---

The installation is a little messy for uClibc:
uClibc does not have argp, because argp is not defined by any standard and
does not belong in a C library (it's Glibc specific). So get the stand-alone
argp library:
http://www.lysator.liu.se/~nisse/misc/argp-standalone-1.3.tar.gz

For uClibc first unpack argp-standalone, we don't need to install this:

cd argp-standalone-1.3 &&
./configure --prefix=/usr && make

Then unpack rng-tools:

cd rng-tools-2 &&
env LIBS=-largp \
        CFLAGS="-O2 -L../argp-standalone-1.3 -I../argp-standalone-1.3" \
        ./configure --prefix=/usr && make && make install

--- End uClibc installation ---

rng-tools expects to find /dev/hw_random. This device was renamed to
/dev/hwrandom in Linux-2.6, so you may need to start 'rngd' like this:

rngd -r /dev/hw_random

This should be started on boot just like audio-entropyd, below.

This package comes with a test program named 'rngtest'.

- Audio/Video entropy daemon:
http://www.vanheusden.com/aed/
http://www.vanheusden.com/ved/
These two daemons use either the static noise from the sound card, or the video
frames from a video4linux device. These devices have a never ending supply of
entropy created by thermal fluctuation and electric fields on the devices.
These entropy gathering daemons depend on the kernel driver for your hardware,
to work properly, be it your sound or video card. These programs will refill
the kernel entropy pool as needed. The programs can be used together in
combination, including with Gkernel, to maintain a kernel entropy pool which
uses several different sources.

http://www.vanheusden.com/aed/audio-entropyd-0.0.6.tgz

make &&
install -g 0 -o 0 -m 755 audio-entropyd /usr/sbin/audio-entropyd

Edit your /etc/rc.d/init.d/random and start audio-entropyd just after seeding
urandom, and stop it just after saving random-seed. Or use the boot script
template and make a dedicated boot script. The PID file will be in /var/run.
You don't need to reboot to use it, but you do need your sound card driver
loaded, and be root. Add something like this:

if [ -f /usr/sbin/audio-entropyd ] && [ -c /dev/dsp ]; then
        echo "Starting audio entropy daemon..."
        loadproc /usr/sbin/audio-entropyd
fi

and...

echo "Stopping audio entropy daemon..."
killproc /usr/sbin/audio-entropyd

http://www.vanheusden.com/ved/video_entropyd-0.7.tgz

make &&
install -g 0 -o 0 -m 755 video_entropyd /usr/sbin/video_entropyd

Add this to root's crontab every minute or so. It can not run as a daemon
because it will lock the video device. Depends on video4linux. Using one or
both of these daemons should be adequate for sustained moderate-to-heavy use.

Nothing else needs to be done, applications can continue to use /dev/random
and /dev/urandom normally. You should notice crypt keys get made faster.

Note: I have not personally used video_entropyd.

- LavaRnd entropy daemon:
http://www.lavarnd.org/
This uses hardware as a source of entropy much like Video Entropy Daemon.
I have not personally used this daemon.

- Frandom and Erandom kernel drivers:
http://frandom.sourceforge.net/
Frandom stands for "fast random". Erandom stands for "economical random".
They both use the arcfour algorithm

The /dev/frandom device is similar to /dev/urandom except that it only takes
one single seed from /dev/random, each time it is opened. As a result it is
able to output random data much faster than /dev/urandom because there is
no stirring of frandom's pool. This is ideal for wiping discs, or any time you
need gigabytes of random data.

The /dev/erandom device uses the constantly changing state of frandom's pool,
in a read-only mode, for entropy. /dev/erandom consumes no entropy from
/dev/random, and is ideal for applications that want to open the device
thousands of times, such as Stack Smashing Protector. /dev/erandom is also
well suited for any medium security application, and should be used for any
non-cryptographic application instead of /dev/urandom. /dev/erandom will
eventually output repeating data, but can be reinitialized by using
/dev/frandom (dumping one block from /dev/frandom to /dev/null). This is
done automatically after each reboot, and should be done once per week.

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/linux/
	linux-2.6.21.1-frandom-1.patch

	CONFIG_FRANDOM is in "Character Devices" and "UserMode" menus.

Add Udev permissions with the following command:
echo 'NAME=="erandom", MODE="0444"
NAME=="frandom", MODE="0444"' >>/etc/udev/rules.d/25-lfs.rules

Add this to your crontab, so /dev/erandom will be reinitialized weekly:
0 0 * * 1 /bin/dd if=/dev/frandom of=/dev/null count=1 >/dev/null 2>&1

Note: The sysctl interfaces are considered obsolete in the latest Linux-2.6
kernels, and may not be supported much longer. As a result the SYSCTL_ERANDOM
interface is no longer recommended, but it's there if you want it.

- Fortuna kernel driver:
http://jlcooke.ca/random
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortuna_(PRNG)
The Fortuna driver is a complete replacement for the Linux random number
driver. While the vanilla kernel uses the SHA1 algorithm, the Fortuna driver
uses AES and SHA-256, and is capable of producing far more volume of random
data from the same entropy, due to using superior algorithms. The Fortuna
driver is also able to use any other algorithms supplied by the Linux crypto
API. The Fortuna driver includes several other improvements to the vanilla
driver.

At the time of this writing the patch on the Fortuna home page does not build
with linux-2.6.21.1, because of changes to the crypto api.

	CONFIG_CRYPTO_RANDOM_FORTUNA - This depends on CONFIG_CRYPTO, SHA256,
					and AES, in the crypto menu.

- Arc4random library:
The arc4random interfaces were designed by OpenBSD to solve the problem of
emptying the kernel entropy pool with non-cryptographic applications. In
Linux this is solved with /dev/erandom. The arc4random library function is
a companion function. It is designed to never fail.

For example, a program can be coded to try to use /dev/urandom for entropy,
and use the gettimeofday library function if /dev/urandom fails (like in a
chroot). The problem with this is that when the gettimeofday function is
being used it is fairly obvious that the output has a sequence, and it tells
an attacker that the system time is being used for entropy in this program.
The arc4random library function also uses /dev/urandom (or /dev/erandom),
and the gettimeofday library function if /dev/urandom fails, except that the
entropy is digested by the arcfour algorithm. The result is that even with a
one microsecond difference from gettimeofday, arc4random's output will be
completely different, and it is impossible for an attacker to know whether
the entropy came from /dev/urandom or the system time. Furthermore, even if
/dev/urandom (or /dev/erandom), and gettimeofday fail, arc4random will use the
uninitialized variables in a large character array (garbage data in memory).

Many packages will use the arc4random library function if it is found, such as
OpenSSL, OpenSSH, OpenNTPD, and Bind9.

The arc4random library function discards the first 256 bytes of the stream to
deal with the early key stream weakness, which is described in the paper below.

This function is included with uClibc. There is a patch below for Glibc.

Read more about Arcfour here:
Paper describing Arcfour -
http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/\
	draft-kaukonen-cipher-arcfour-03.txt
Paper describing the RC4 (and arcfour) weakness -
http://www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il/~itsik/RC4/Papers/Rc4_ksa.ps

This patch adds the arc4random library function, and uses arc4random() in
tempname so it is used by the mktemp() family of functions, instead of
gettimeofday(), and to res_init, res_mkquery, and bindrsvprt to improve the
resolver and port number randomization, instead of using getpid().

http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/patches/downloads/glibc/
	glibc-2.5-arc4_prng-1.patch

This patch also adds the --with-prng-device option. If you're using
/dev/erandom then use '--with-prng-device=/dev/erandom' when configuring Glibc.

Install the arc4random.3 manual page with this command:
install -m644 ../glibc-2.5/manual/arc4random.3 /usr/share/man/man3

OpenSSL will not detect arc4random. If you want to use arc4random with OpenSSL
instead of /dev/urandom then use the following command in OpenSSL's source:

sed -e 's/__OpenBSD__/__linux__/' -i crypto/rand/rand_unix.c

This is used with RAND_add, for RAND_bytes and RAND_pseudo_bytes, to re-seed the
random number generator for each thread.

- Entropy pool size:
You can increase the size of your kernel entropy pool. This will help you
retain entropy when it's available for when you need it. You can see the
current size with:
cat /proc/sys/kernel/random/poolsize
or
sysctl kernel.random.poolsize

This was recently increased from 512 bytes to 4096 bytes. This /proc file, and
sysctl, is read-only, and can not be changed without hard coding it in the
kernel.

If you want to increase this then I suggest you use the Grsecurity kernel patch
at: http://www.grsecurity.net/

And enable the "Larger entropy pools" option to double the size:
	CONFIG_GRKERNSEC_RANDNET

- OpenSSL modifications:
OpenSSL command line tools will try to use the $RANDFILE, $HOME/.rnd, or
$(pwd)/.rnd file to initially seed its random number generator. If none are
found then the "PRNG not seeded" error message may occur. We can build OpenSSL
with a contingency plan, to use /dev/urandom, instead of causing an error.

Do this with the following command in the OpenSSL source:

sed -e 's/__OpenBSD__/__linux__/' \
	-e 's/arandom/urandom/' -i crypto/rand/randfile.c

- Testing entropy quantity
You should try to test this on an idle machine. Nothing compiling in
background, no updatedb running, etc. Moving/clicking the mouse, keyboard, and
even network traffic will create entropy in the pool, and affect results.

Fetch this:
http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/~robert/hlfs/hints/attachments/entropy/
	entropy_avail.sh

Open two windows with non-root login. This is easiest to do in X, else split
a console window in two. In one window do this:

sh ./entropy_avail.sh

In the next window do something like this:

dd if=/dev/{u,f,e}random of=/dev/null bs=1 count=1024

If one or both of the entropyd programs are running you should see the pool
being refilled. Kill the entropyd program(s) and you should see it does not
refill so quickly. Move the mouse and play with it if you like. If you use a
small count like count=512 the entropyd program(s) may not refill immediately
because the pool is still large enough. This is to improve performance.

You might want to delete entropy_avail.log when you're done.

- Testing entropy quality
The 'ent' program runs various tests on data you supply to check for patterns.
For a better description see:
http://www.fourmilab.ch/random/

Download the 'ent' program from here:
http://www.fourmilab.ch/random/random.zip

This package will unpack to your current directory, so it is best to make a
new empty directory and unpack random.zip in there. This package only needs a
'make' command to compile.

To test your random generators do something like this:

dd if=/dev/erandom of=erandom.txt count=100
./ent erandom.txt

or:

dd if=/dev/erandom count=512|./ent -b

These tests can take a very long time.

From the people who made Audio/Video entropy daemon there is another randomness
test program:
http://www.vanheusden.com/Linux/RNGTEST.tgz

To compile RNGTEST:

gcc -o RNGTEST RNGTEST.c

To use RNGTEST:

dd if=/dev/frandom count=2048 | RNGTEST
and:
cat /bin/true | RNGTEST

You'll notice /bin/true fails the RNGTEST multiple times.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:
* Thanks to Eli Billauer for the Frandom suite.
	http://frandom.sourceforge.net/
	http://www.billauer.co.il/
* Thanks to OpenBSD for the arc4random library.
	http://www.openbsd.org/cgi-bin/cvsweb/src/lib/libc/crypt/arc4random.c
* Thanks to hlfs-dev at linuxfromscratch.org

CHANGELOG:
[2004-03-29]
* Initial post
[2004-03-30]
* Added test.
[2004-04-18]
* Added frandom/erandom.
[2004-04-25]
* Added hardware random url and notes.
* Switched the entropy_avail program to a more simple shell script.
[2004-05-07]
* Added patch for kernel 2.6 and for mktemp.
* Added LavaRnd.
[2004-10-01]
* Added libc-headers patch.
[2004-10-28]
* New patch tarball url added.
* Added second url for linux-libc-headers patch.
[2004-11-03]
* Added Libarc4random.
* Changed Mktemp patch from frandom to libarc4random.
[2004-11-28]
* Added patch for linux-2.6.7 and older kernels because the 2.6.9 patch
  does not compile on older kernel versions.
[2005-02-05]
* Added bootscript example for aed.
[2005-02-12]
* Added pseudo_random kernel patch and integrated arc4random with libc.
* Added help for increasing entropy pool size.
[2005-02-15]
* Added patch for OpenSSL.
[2005-04-04]
* Update the kernel random poolsize modification method. This must be hard coded
  now.
[2005-04-09]
* Add argp standalone library so rng-tools will build on uClibc.
[2007-05-16]
* Updated the description.
* Added Fortuna kernel driver.
* Added some OpenSSL additions.
* Updated arc4random Glibc patch.
* Updated Frandom kernel patch.
* Added table of contents.
* Added entropy quality tests.
* Fixed the Udev config thanks to Bryan Kadzban.
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